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荒漠化区域公路建设生态环境保护技术研究

A Study on the Ecological Environment Protection Technologies Applied in Highway Construction in Desertification Areas

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【Author in Chinese】 陈爱侠

【Supervisor】 关卫省

【Author's Information】 长安大学, 交通运输规划与管理, 2010, 博士

【Abstract in Chinese】 高等级公路建设近几年在国内外得到了较快的发展。公路建设促进了区域的人流、物流和经济流,使区域社会经济得到了迅速发展,然而公路在建设过程中不可避免地产生环境方面的负面影响,特别是荒漠化区域,其生态环境较为脆弱,在该区域修建高等级公路使原本脆弱的生态环境更加脆弱,甚至造成不可逆的生态环境影响。论文以内蒙古省际通道桑根达来-公主埂公路(以下简称“桑公公路”)和商都-安业段公路(以下简称“商安公路”)为依托,分析公路建设对荒漠化区域生态环境的影响机理,提出荒漠化区域公路建设生态环境保护技术,总结荒漠化区域公路建设生态环境保护技术应用效果,促进荒漠化区域公路建设与环境保护可持续发展。论文通过对公路建设前后植被覆盖度、沙面湿润度变化对输沙率的影响以及工程取弃沙造成沙丘活化的原因分析,探索公路沙害与风沙流动等生态因子的相互作用机理,为公路防沙治沙的基础研究、技术创新提供依据;通过调查和总结风积沙路段的沙粒特性和流体特性,探讨公路建设对风积沙脆弱生态区环境扰动的机理;通过分析公路施工期对地表植被的扰动、工程区土壤养分的变化以及风沙流对植被蒸腾作用的影响,进一步揭示了荒漠化农牧区公路建设扰动难以恢复的原因。依据桑公公路经过浑山达克沙地和商安公路经过荒漠化农牧区的环境特点,提出荒漠化区域生态环境保护技术,即在穿沙公路路基两侧各30m区域和公路取弃土场等处设置低立式网格沙障;在穿沙公路路基上风侧50-80m和下风侧40-50m流沙区设置高立式沙障;在大面积流沙区设置低立式沙障和高立式沙障结合的组合式沙障。对荒漠化农牧区风蚀较严重的公路路堤采用碎石或碎石土压盖坡面补救措施。结合物种组合实验,提出荒漠化区域公路路域生态恢复和重建的物种组合方式,即柠条为穿沙公路沿线防风固沙植物的优势种,黄柳是快速固沙的优良灌木,沙蒿是快速固沙的优良草本植物;荒漠化农牧区可以以小叶锦鸡儿为主要优势灌木种,结合羊草、冷蒿、冰草、沙芦草及紫花苜蓿等草本植物形成灌草组合,实现立体生态恢复。通过现场测试手段,总结分析荒漠化区域公路建设生态环境保护技术应用效果。测试结果表明,穿沙公路低立式沙障设置使地面粗糙度提高为5.64cm,地表防风效能达63.1%,高立式沙障地表防风效能达58.5%,组合沙障最大防风效能达74.8%;低立式和高立式沙障内的土壤环境明显地改善,具体表现为沙障内土壤容重下降、土壤孔隙度增加、土壤含水量增大,土壤养分含量明显高于流动沙地。荒漠化区域路域生态工程的建设,为路域野生植被提供了较好的土壤生态环境。经现场调查,在桑公公路路域内野生植物种有明显增加,多年生的稳定的野生固沙植物达到2-4株/m2,主要是沙米、叉分蓼和沙蒿,野生植被盖度由5%提高到15%,有利于路域生态系统的恢复。穿越浑山达克沙地的桑公公路在采取以上生态环境保护技术以后,从根本上消除了公路沙害,据初步估算,其经济效益约为2.52亿元。穿越荒漠化农牧区的商安公路路基边坡在采取生态工程补救措施后,公路年养护费用减少了35%。因此,荒漠化区域生态环境保护技术的应用取得了明显的环境效益和经济效益。

【Abstract】 Recently high-grade highway construction has obtained rapid developments all over the world. The highway construction has promoted flow of population, economic, material, giving rise to regional economic benefits on a societal level. Meanwhile, building highways would obviously pose a negative impact on the environment, especially in desertification areas, because of the fragile ecological environment; Moreover high-grade highway construction would do nothing but make that situation worse and cause an irreversible harm to ecological environment of desertification areas.Based on the Inner Mongolia Inter-province highways—SangGenDaLai-GongZhuGeng Highway (simplified as "Sang Gong Highway"below) and ShangDu-AnYe Highway(simplified as "Shang An" Highway), this essay analyzes on the influencing mechanisms of highway construction on the ecological environment in desertification areas, puts forward the ecological environment protection technologies applied in highway construction in those areas, summarizes the feedbacks brought by certain technologies and facilitates environmental sustainable developments as well as the highway construction in desertification areas.Relying on the impacts of vegetation coverage shifts and sand surface moisture changes on sediment transport rate before and after highway construction and the reasons why construction spoil and fill sands causes dune activation, this essay explores the mutual interaction mechanisms of ecological factors such as sand hazards to highway and sand movements which have lend the evidence to the fundamental experiments and technical innovations to prevent and control sands. By investigating and evaluating the attributes of sand particles and fluid in wind-blown sand areas, this essay discusses environmental disturbing mechanisms highway construction has brought to wind-blown vulnerable ecological zones. By analyzing influences of the disturbance by highway construction to surface vegetation, sand flow and the changes of sand nutrients on vegetation transpiration, this essay further to unveil the reasons why it is difficult for desertification farm and pastoral areas to recover the perturbations of highway construction in itself.In terms of environmental characteristics that Sang Gong Highway runs through HunShanDaKe sandy land and Shang An Highway goes across desertification farming and pastoral areas, the desertification-area ecological environment protection techniques are put forward—low-standing sand barriers should be installed at a place of 30m away from both sides of desert-crossing highway subgrade or in the highway spoil and fill areas; High-standing sand barriers should be installed in the drifting areas where lie in the distance of 50-80m upwind and 40-50m downwind of desert-crossing highways subgrades. For large-area drifting sand regions, the combined sand barriers which combine low-standing with high-standing barriers should be installed. For highway embankments seriously corroded by wind in farming and pastoral areas, certain remedial measures such as covering slopes with gravel or gravel soil should be taken. With species-combination experiments being considered synthetically, different combinations are proposed to restore and rehabilitate road-region ecology of desertification areas, for example, Caragana Korshinskii is one kind of advantage species to prevent wind and stabilize sands along the sand-crossing highways; Artemisia desertorum and Salix gordejevii are both shrubs, two kinds of superior shrubs that can stabilize sands rapidly; C. microphylla which can serve as the primary dominant species in the desertification farming and pastoral areas, along with Leymus chinensis. Artemisia frigidal, Agropyron cristatum,. Agropyron mongolicum, Medicago sativa and other herbaceous plants integrate into shrub-grass group and such group may achieve dimensional ecological restoration.By using field-testing measures, the effects if certain ecological environment technologies are applied in highway construction in the desertification areas are evaluated and analyzed. Test results indicate, after installing low-standing sand barriers along sand-crossing roads, ground roughness has raised to 5.64cm and surface wind-break potency to 63.1%, high-standing sand barriers have made surface wind-break potency reach 58.5% and the maximized wind-break potency is up to 74.8% if combined barriers are installed; The soil environment of low-standing and high-standing barriers has obviously improved, which manifest itself in the decreased soil bulk density, the increased soil porosity, the moistures and higher soil nutrient content compared to shifting sandy land. Establishing desertification area road-region ecological project has supplied better soil microecology environment to the growth of road-region wild plants. The field survey unveils that wild vegetation species in Sang Gong highway area has multiplied and perennial stable wild sand fixing plants have reached 2-4 plants/m2, mainly including Agriophyllum squarrosum,Polygonum divaricatum and A. desertorum Vegetation coverage has increased from 5% to 15%, which favors the stability of road-region ecosystem.With certain ecological environment protection techniques being applied along Sang Gong highway, highway sand calamity is being radically eliminated. It is estimated that the economic benefits will amount to approximately (?)252 million. The annual costs for road maintenance would decrease by 35% after such ecological remedial measures are to be taken in Shang An highway subgrade slope. All in all, the application of such ecological environment protection technologies in desertification areas has brought about both environmental and economic benefits.

  • 【Contributor】 长安大学
  • 【Year of Internet Publish】201011
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