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过度放牧与轻度放牧下蒙古草原植被土壤及社会经济研究

Overgrazing and Light Grazing Effect on Vegetation,Soil and Socio-Economy of Pasture in the Mongolian Steppe

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【Author in Chinese】 格日勒玛(Gerelmaa Khurlee)

【Supervisor】 侯向阳

【Author's Information】 中国农业科学院, 草地资源利用与保护, 2017, 博士

【Abstract in Chinese】 草原畜牧业作为一种高度适应性的自然生态系统,是蒙古国的主要支柱产业。本研究以蒙古国东部地区的肯特省和苏赫巴特省不同收入水平的家庭牧场为例,分析和对比重度放牧和轻度放牧下草原植被的特征。不同经济共采集到7050个植被样本和1000个土壤样本,分析探明了蒙古国典型草原在重度放牧和轻度放牧下植物、土壤及社会经济状况的变化规律如下:1)与轻度放牧相比,重度放牧下草原植被群落中物种数、群落盖度、生物量、多年生禾草生物量和盖度呈明显下降趋势;苔草类植物、一年生和二年生植物的盖度明显增加。轻度放牧草场的植物群落高度为20~50 cm,而重度放牧草场植物群落高度为5~25 cm;重度放牧下草场的羊草和大针茅的叶片大小、茎粗均明显减小。重度放牧下土壤0~30 cm沙土含量增加3%,0~20 cm土层C、N、P含量均有下降趋势。2)随着纬度从北向南降低,重度放牧对多年生禾草的盖度和生物量的影响有减弱的趋势,对一年生和二年生植物的盖度和生物量的影响也有减弱的趋势。3)通过对蒙古国和中国锡林郭勒盟(锡盟)草地退化研究表明,重度放牧明显减少多年生禾草的比重,而且低营养价值的草类比例均增加。蒙古国草地的地上生物量、地下生物量和总生物量均比中国锡盟草地的要高,说明中国锡盟草地的退化程度要比蒙古国更为严重。4)棕钙土的有机质水平超过3%,黏土的有机质水平在2~3%,而沙土的有机质水平在1.5~2%。受过度放牧的影响,0~30 cm土壤中的沙粒组成增加3%。过度放牧下0~10cm土壤总碳含量为:锡林河流域(9.0±0.03 kg/m~3)、蒙古国苏赫巴托省(15.4±0.19 kg/m~3)、蒙古国肯特省(9.9±0.01 kg/m~3);轻度放牧下0~10cm土壤总碳含量为:锡林河流域(19.4±0.01 kg/m~3)、蒙古国苏赫巴托省(19.7±0.25 kg/m~3)、蒙古国肯特省(11.8±0.19 kg/m~3)。过度放牧下0~10cm土壤总氮含量为:锡林河流域(0.84±0.08 kg/m~3)、蒙古国苏赫巴托省(1.24±0.14 kg/m~3)、蒙古国肯特省(0.92±0.01 kg/m~3);轻度放牧下0~10cm土壤总氮含量为:锡林河流域(2.31±0.45 kg/m~3)、蒙古国苏赫巴托省(1.69±0.55 kg/m~3)、蒙古国肯特省(1.2±0.12 kg/m~3)。过度放牧下0~10cm土壤总磷含量为:锡林河流域(3.1±0.06 kg/m~3)、蒙古国苏赫巴托省(0.3±0.01 kg/m~3)、蒙古国肯特省(0.18±0.77 kg/m~3);轻度放牧下0~10cm土壤总磷含量为:锡林河流域(0.32±0.04 kg/m~3)、蒙古国苏赫巴托省(0.33±0.07kg/m~3)、蒙古国肯特省(0.03±0.12 kg/m~3)。5)草原畜牧业是蒙古国经济和社会发展的主要产业。与中国内蒙古相似,牧户是畜牧业经营的主要独立单元。随着社会经济市场化和畜牧业的迅速发展,强化了蒙古国草原退化和荒漠化以及灾害频繁发生,使得调查牧户平均草场载畜数量在2014-2016年逐年下降,牧户月平均收入下降45%,调查牧户的收入处于贫困线下,72.6~80.5%的牧户收入仅可维持其家庭温饱。

【Abstract】 Grassland animal husbandry,which is highly adaptive to natural ecosystem,is a dominant industry of Mongolian.Vegetation characteristics of pastoralist households’pastures at different economic levels were quantified to compare the grassland conditions in overgrazing and light grazing in Khentii and Sukhbaatar province Mongolian eastern region in 2015-2016.During the experiment,we had collected 300 field notes,7050 plant samples and 1000 soil samples.The changes of plant and soil of overgrazing grassland and light grazing grassland social-economic status in the degradation grassland are as follows:(1)Comparing with light grazing grassland,the plant species number,vegetation cover,and biomass accumulation of the community and canopy cover of perennial grass plant species on the overgrazing grassland significantly decreased.The canopy covers of sedge,annual and biennials plants on the overgrazing grassland significantly increased.The community height is 20-50 cm and5-25 cm in light grazed and overgrazed grassland,respectively.Affected by overgrazing,leaf size and stem diameter of Leymus chinensis and Stipa grandis significantly decreased.(2)With the decreasing of geographical latitudes from north to south along transects Mongolia grasslands,the effects of overgrazing on canopy cover and biomass of perennial grasses have the decreasing trend.(3)In addition,our results in the Mongolia and Inner Mongolia of China showed that the percentages of perennial grasses significantly decreased induced by overgrazing.Affected by livestock overgrazing,the plant species with low nutritional value dramatically increased.The aboveground biomass,below ground biomass and total biomass of grassland of Mongolia are all higher than grassland of Inner Mongolia of China,which means Xiliin River Inner Mongolia of China has heavier grassland degradation.(4)The humus level in the brown soil rarely exceed 3%in the light clay soil the levels about at 2-3%,in the sandy soil 1.5-2%.Affected by overgrazing,soil sand composition content increased by 3%in layer of 0-30 cm and soil total carbon content overgrazed pasture in depth 0-10 cm Inner Mongolia of China Xiliin River province 9.0±0.03(kg/m~3),Mongolia Sukhbaatar province15.4±0.19(kg/m~3)and Mongolia Kentii province 9.9±0.01(kg/m~3),and light grazed pasture 0-10cm 19.4±0.01(kg/m~3),19.7±0.25(kg/m~3),11.8±0.19(kg/m~3).The soil total nitrogen content overgrazed pasture in depth 0-10 cm in Inner Mongolia of China Xiliin River province was 0.84±0.08(kg/m~3),in Mongolian Sukhbaatar province was 1.24±0.14(kg/m~3)and in Mongolia Kentii province was 0.92±0.01(kg/m~3),and in light grazed pasture was0-10 cm 2.31±0.45(kg/m~3),1.69±0.55(kg/m~3),1.2±0.12(kg/m~3).The phosphorous content in depth of 0-10 in Inner Mongolia of China Xiliin River province was3.1±0.06(kg/m~3),in Mongolian Sukhbaatar province was 0.3±0.01(kg/m~3)and in Mongolian Kentii province was 0.18±0.77(kg/m~3)and in light grazed pasture of 0-10 cm was 0.32±0.04(kg/m~3),0.33±0.07(kg/m~3),and 0.03±0.12(kg/m~3).(5)Grassland animal husbandry is the foundation and main industry of social and economic development in Mongolian.Similar to Inner Mongolia of China,households are independent grazing units.With the marketization and livestock husbandry development,the land desertification and ecological degradation is intensified,and the frequency of grassland catastrophes increased,which caused household sheep units decreased,monthly income decreased,45%of the total interviewed households were living below poverty line,72.6-80.5%of the household’s income is only sufficient for food and clothing expenses.

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