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干旱区土壤水盐分布特征与调控方法研究

Study on Features of Soil Salt Distribution and Adjusting Method in Arid Area

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【Author in Chinese】 张江辉

【Supervisor】 王全九

【Author's Information】 西安理工大学, 水文学及水资源, 2010, 博士

【Abstract in Chinese】 针对干旱地区土壤盐碱化特点,在国内外相关研究的基础上,采取理论分析和试验研究相结合的方法,对新疆干旱地区土壤盐分分布特征与调控方法开展了研究工作,取得了以下主要成果。1、通过分析非饱和土壤水分与盐分运移特征,建立了土壤吸渗率与土壤水分扩散率间理论关系,以及具有明确物理意义入渗公式参数间关系,为入渗模型参数的相互转化提供了理论基础;针对新疆干旱区冬灌或春灌特点,建立了描述土壤水分和盐分分布的数学模型,为分析土壤水分含量和盐分浓度分布特征提供了新的简单方法。2、利用土壤水动力学基本理论,分析了潜水蒸发基本特征,得到了稳定潜水蒸发量与地下水埋深间呈指数函数关系;通过对土面蒸发的温度校正,获得了校正土面蒸发与水面蒸发间的线形关系,以及土壤月积温与潜水蒸发量间关系。对塔里木盆地六县地下水埋深和矿化度对土壤含盐量的影响进行了分析,结果显示耕地土壤含盐量与地下水矿化度呈正比,与地下水埋深呈指数关系,并得到六县综合土壤含盐量与地下水埋深和矿化度间关系。为了进一步分析土壤盐分累积动态变化特征,建立了预测分析土壤盐分多年累积特征的数学公式。3、针对干旱区农田排水特征,分析了土壤含盐量与各离子组成间关系,结果显示土壤含盐量与主要离子含量间存在较好的线形关系。研究结果也显示,覆膜种植具有较好的抑制表层土壤盐分累积,且随着深度增加这种抑制作用逐步减少;通过分析土壤含盐量与地下水埋深和矿化度间关系,提出了校正土壤含盐量方法,建立了土壤含盐量与地下水矿化度和埋深间关系;依据土壤盐分累积特征,以作物耐盐度为基础,提出了允许地下水深度概念,并依据地下水允许深度确定了试验区排水沟深度和间距的计算公式,为干旱区排水系统设计和分析田间土壤盐分关系提供参考。4、研究结果显示,冬灌具有较好淋洗盐分的效果,并且随着灌溉水量增加,上层脱盐率和脱盐深度增加。依据质量平衡原理,建立了分析土壤脱盐率与灌溉水量间函数关系。土壤盐分滞留率与灌水量间存在指数关系,以及脱盐率与灌水量间也可以利用指数函数描述。分析了旱地龙和禾康使用方式和使用量对土壤水盐及棉花生长的影响,结果表明施加改良剂改变了土壤盐分含量和离子组成分布,在滴灌棉田施用旱地龙和禾康后,土体脱盐率分别为30.3%和22.3%,而对照区试验地脱盐率仅为10.4%。综合施加改良剂对土壤盐分分布、棉花生长状况、棉花产量和综合效益分析来看,施加旱地龙具有明显减少土壤盐分,改善棉花生长状况,提高经济效益的功能。5、通过田间试验,分析了葡萄膜下滴灌土壤水盐分布特征,结果显示灌水定额对滴头下方和点源交汇处土壤含盐量的影响较大。灌溉频率直接影响土壤水盐分布,灌水周期为3天的处理生育期内土壤含盐量有大幅度的下降。通过分析新疆干旱区土壤盐分累积特征和淋洗特征,以及各种土壤改良措施的特点,针对新疆盐碱地利用与次生盐碱化防治的实际情况,就各种改良模式特点和应用方法进行了探讨,为选择合理科学的土壤水盐调控模式提供指导。

【Abstract】 According to the features of salt-effected soils in arid area, the features ofsoil salt distribution and its adjusting method were studied through the theoretical analysis and experimental research based on the review on the related research results at home and abroad. The main research resuls are as following.1、The soil water movement features were analyzed, and the relation between soil sorpitivity and diffusion coefficient was established in order to provide an approach for mutual thansformtion of hydraulic parameters. At the same time, the relatioship among parametrs in the physical basis infiltrtion models were found in order to provid a method of mutual transformtion of the infiltration models. The.According to the features of irrigation in winter and in spring, the simple mathematical models for soil water and salt content distribution were established in order to provide a new method for describing soil water and salt transfer.2、The basic features of groundwater evaporation was analyzed and the exponential funtion relation between groundwater evaporation and underground water table was found based on the soil water dynamic theory. There is a linear realtion between revised soil evaporation and water evaopration based on the revision of soil evaporation through soil temperature, and the relation between groundwater evaporation amount and monthy cumulative temperature in soil was found. The effects of groundwater table and its salt concentrtion on soil salt content in six countys, Tarum basin, and the results indicate that there is a linear relation between groundwater salt concontration and a exponential relation betweent soil salt content and groundwater table. In addtion, the comprehensive relation between soil salt content and groundwater table and salt concnetration was found. Meanwhile, a mathematical equation describing soil salt cumulation was established in order to analyze the soil salt cumulation for a long time.3、According to the features of the farmland drainage in arid area, the relation between soilsalt content and its ion component was analyzed, and the results indicate that there was a linear relation between soil salt content and its ion component. The research results indicated that the plastic film mulch can restrain the salt cumulation in soil upper layer and the restrain role descreases as the soil depth increases. According to soil salt cumulation features and crop salt tolerance, the concnept of the allowing groundwater depth was put forward, and the calculation equations for drainage ditch depth and space were established in order to provide a new method for drainage sysytem design in arid area.4、The research results indicate that the farmland irrigation in winter can leach soil salt, and the salt decreasing amount and depth increase as the irrigation water amount increases. The relation between soil salt deacring ratio and irrigation water amount was eastablished, and there are exponential relations among soil salt decreasing ratio and soil salt residual ratio with the irrigation water amount. The effects of applied amount and method of Handilong and Miaokang on soil salt content distribution and crop yields were analyzed, the results indicate that application of Handilong and Miaokang may change the soil salt content and its ion component, and the soil salt descreasing ratios were 30.3% and 22.3% for applying Handilong and Miaokang and is 10.4% without Handilong and Miaokang for growing cotton land with dripper irrigation. The effects of applied Handilong and Miaokang on soil salt content distribution, cotton growth and yield, and comprehenive effectives were analyzed, the results indicate that Handilong can greatly decrease sil salt content, improve cotton growth situation and enhance economic effectives.5、The experimental results in grape farmland indicate that the irrigation water amount affects soil salt content distribution under dripper and converging area, and the irrigation times also effects the soil salt content and decreasing rate. In addtion, the features of soil salt cumulation and leaching and soil improving approaches in arid area were analyzed, and the salt-effected soil improving styles in arid area were studied in order to find reasonble salt-effected soil improve methods.

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