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干旱地区间作种植高效节水灌溉基础问题研究

Study on Fundamentals of Water Saving and Efficient Irrigation for Intercropping in Arid Regions

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【Author in Chinese】 苏德荣

【Supervisor】 高前兆

【Author's Information】 中国科学院研究生院(寒区旱区环境与工程研究所), 自然地理学, 2001, 博士

【Abstract in Chinese】 本文针对干旱地区间作多熟种植模式,以春小麦—玉米间作种植为代表,对这种高产种植模式的灌溉问题进行了两年(1998-1999)比较系统的试验研究,主要取得了以下结果: (1)间作多熟种植是干旱地区最具增产潜力的栽培模式。本文根据间作种植的分带变异特性,提出了间作种植分作物灌溉模式,并将分作物灌溉模式与高效节水的滴灌技术相结合,形成了间作种植分作物滴灌技术。 (2)间作种植分作物滴灌的最主要特点是,节水效果显著,水分利用效率高。试验表明,在干旱地区春小麦—玉米间作种植中实行分作物滴灌,春小麦产量7000-7600 kg/hm~2,水分利用效率(WUE)1.2-1.6 kg/m~3。玉米产量6000-9080kg/hm~2,水分利用效率1-1.7 kg/m~3。与地面灌溉相比,间作种植分作物滴灌节水48%-61%。 (3)本文用微型蒸渗仪对间作种植的棵间蒸发量进行了观测,获得了春小麦—玉米间作种植滴灌条件下的棵间蒸发资料,从而得到了蒸发量与蒸腾量的比例关系。结果表明,在高产条件下,春小麦棵间蒸发量1080-1380 m~3/hm~2,玉米棵间蒸发量2430-2730 m~3/hm~2,分别占总耗水量的23%-32%和42%-49%。 (4)通过田间试验,本文给出了干旱地区春小麦—玉米间作种植在分作物滴灌条件下的田间耗水量及耗水规律。间作春小麦的田间耗水量为4275-4500m~3/hm~2,其中蒸腾2910-3600 m~3/hm~2,占总耗水量的68%-77%。玉米在高产时的田间耗水量为5775-6075 m~3/hm~2,其中蒸腾3150-3405 m~3/hm~2,占总耗水量的51%-58%。 (5)本文通过试验总结出了干早地区春小麦—玉米分作物滴灌的灌溉制度。主要指标包括,间作春小麦高产为目标的滴灌定额3000-3900 m~3/hm~2,全生育期滴灌次数10-13次。间作玉米保持高产的滴灌次数15-17次,滴灌定额3900-4500 m~3/hm~2。 (6)根据田间入渗试验和土壤水动力学模拟计算,结合不同毛管间距与春小麦产量关系的试验结果,运用动态经济分析方法,本文提出了间作带田春小麦带经济最佳的毛管布置间距为60 cm,产量最高的布置间距为40 cm。

【Abstract】 During two consecutive years (1998-1999) a field experiment was conducted in Minqin, Gansu province, NW China. The main objective of this study was to determine irrigation principle and techniques with water saving and efficiency for intercropping, especially for spring wheat / corn intercropping under arid conditions. The main results achieved as follows.(1) Intercropping is the most potential for increasing grain yield in arid regions. In this study, a new irrigation method for intercropping, Divided Crop Irrigation (DCI), has been presented based on the features of the spatial variability in intercropping fields, that is one crop alternating with another crop, and the principles of precision irrigation. Furthermore, a divided crop drip irrigation (DCDI) method for intercropping has been developed through applying drip irrigation to the DCI.(2) The remarkable characteristics of the DCDI is high water use efficiency and great effect of water saving. The results showed that the grain yield of the component of spring wheat in the intercropping came up to 7000 - 7600 kg/ha, the WUE reached 1.2 - 1.6 kg/m3, and the grain yield of the corn component was 6000 - 9080 kg/ha, the WUE 1.0-1.7 kg/m3, under the condition of DCDI for the intercropping in the arid region. Meanwhile, there was a 48% to 61% reduction of irrigation water in the DCDI for the intercropping as compared with surface irrigation method.(3) In this study, soil evaporation between the crop rows and the dynamic processes in the spring wheat / corn intercropping field under the conditions of DCDI was measured by using mico-lysimeter. Therefore, the data of soil evaporation and the proportions between soil evaporation and transpiration for the two crops have been obtained. The results showed that, under the condition of high grain yield, the soil evaporation between the rows of spring wheat in a growing season was 1080 to 1380 m3/ha and the soil evaporation of corn was 2430 to 2730 m3/ha,

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