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沙漠沙尘对光伏组件输出特性影响的实验研究

Experimental Study on Effect of Desert Dust on Output Characteristics of Photovoltaic Modules

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【Author in Chinese】 张旭

【Supervisor】 赵明智苏海龙

【Author's Information】 内蒙古工业大学, 工程硕士(专业学位), 2018, 硕士

【Abstract in Chinese】 截止2017年底,我国的太阳能光伏发电装机容量已达上亿千瓦,为了合理的利用资源,其中有很大一部分光伏电站建立在太阳能资源丰富的沙漠地区。这些地区沙物质丰富,松散的沙尘颗粒容易在外力的作用下覆盖在光伏组件表面影响光伏组件的正常工作。因此,研究分析沙漠沙尘覆盖对光伏组件输出特性的影响,对建立在沙漠地区光伏电站的高效运行具有重要意义。为了分析沙漠沙尘对光伏组件输出特性产生的影响,通过野外实验和实验室实验相结合的方法对其进行实验研究。首先,结合太阳能电池发电的基本原理、沙尘的输送机制和影响光伏组件表面积沙的因素,分析了积沙对光伏组件的影响机理。通过在沙漠中设立了12组实验样本,每组分为0°、15°、30°、45°、60°、75°、90°七种不同安装倾角共84块光伏组件。分析不同安装倾角和不同积沙时间下,沙尘对光伏组件输出功率的影响。结果表明:当安装倾角较小时,光伏组件表面的积沙量多,光伏组件的功率损耗率大,其中当光伏组件的安装倾角为0°时,一年中的功率损耗率最大可达30%;当安装倾角相同时,积沙初期光伏组件的功率损耗率变化明显。在外界环境相同时,光伏组件表面覆盖的沙量和沙尘粒径发生改变,光伏组件的工作温度也会有所不同,而光伏组件的温度升高时,光伏组件的输出功率也会有所降低。在实验过程中分别搭建了相同倾角不同沙量覆盖下和相同倾角不同沙尘粒径覆盖下光伏组件的温度测度平台。实验结果表明:当光伏组件表面有沙尘覆盖时,其温度降低;随着覆盖沙量和沙尘粒径的变化,其温度变化也随之改变。在外界环境相同时,光伏组件表面覆盖的沙量和沙尘粒径发生改变,光伏组件的输出特性也有所不同。在实验过程中分别搭建了相同倾角不同沙量覆盖下和相同倾角不同沙尘粒径覆盖下,光伏组件的开路电压、短路电流、输出功率等基本参数测试平台。结果显示:光伏组件表面被沙尘覆盖后,对其开路电压影响较小,对其短路电流和输出功率影响较大。通过上述研究,分析了沙漠沙尘对光伏组件输出特性的影响,利用得到的规律为建立在沙漠地区的光伏电站的后期运行和维护提供一定的理论指导。

【Abstract】 By the end of 2017,the installed capacity of solar photovoltaic power generation has reached 100 million kilowatts in China.In order to use resources rationally,many photovoltaic power stations been built in desert areas with abundant solar energy resources.But the normal operation of the photovoltaic modules components will be affected by sand particlescovering on the surface.Therefore,to study the impact of sand on the output characteristics have great significance for the efficient operation of photovoltaic power plants.The effect of sand on the output characteristics of PV modules was studied by field experiments and laboratory experiments.Firstly,base on the principles of solar battery power generation,the transport mechanism of sand and the causes of sand accumulating on the surface of PV modules,the influences of sand on PV modules were analyzed theoretically.Established 84 PV modules in the desert and divided them into 12 groups,installation inclination is 0°,15°,30°,45°,60°,75°,and 90°respectively.The effects of sand on the output power of PV modules under different installation inclinations and different sand accumulation times were analyzed.The results show that,when the installation inclinationis 0°,the amount of sans on the PV surface is the most,and the power loss rate is the highest,up to 30%.When the installation inclination is constant,the power loss rate of PV modules changes significantly during the initial period of sand accumulation.When the external environment is constant,the particle size and the amount of sand covered on the surface of components will affected the operating temperature of the PV module.The output power of PV modules decreases as the operating temperature increases.Under the same installation inclination,the operating temperature of PV modules covered by different amount and different particle size of sand were measured experimentally.The results show that,when the surface of the PV modules was covered with sand,the operating temperature decreases,and the operating temperature changes with the amount and the particle size of sand covering the surface of the PV module.When the external environment is constant,the particle size and the amount of sand covered on the surface of components will affected the output characteristics of the PV module.Under the same installation inclination,the open circuit voltage,the short circuit current and the output power of PV modules covered by different amount and different particle size of sand were measured experimentally.The results showed that,when the surface of the PV modules was covered with sand,the open circuit voltage of PV modules changes little,butit has greater impact on the shortcircuit current and output power of PV modules.Through the above research,the effect of sand on the output characteristics of PV modules was analyzed.The results provide theoretical guidance for the operation and maintenance of photovoltaic power plants built in desert areas.

【Keywords in Chinese】 光伏组件沙漠环境沙尘颗粒输出功率温度
【Key words】 PV modulesDesert environmentSand particlesOutputpowerTemperature
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