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干旱矿区废弃地土壤种子库特征研究

Germination Characteristics of Seed Banks in Mining Wasteland of Arid Environments

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【Author in Chinese】 张涛

【Supervisor】 车克钧

【Author's Information】 甘肃农业大学, 水土保持与荒漠化防治, 2009, 硕士

【Abstract in Chinese】 干旱地区矿业废弃地生态修复的理论和技术研究是目前的热点问题。由于水资源相对匮乏、重金属胁迫、拟选植物有限,使得该区域生态环境治理的难度较大。对干旱矿山地区现有的植物资源进行研究,筛选,寻求可用于大面积矿山废弃地治理的优势种质资源、以及生态修复技术,是该区域生态恢复的基本思路。本文通过对重金属胁迫环境下土壤种子库特征进行研究,来探讨矿业废弃地自然修复的能力。选取金川矿区三个典型样地对矿区废弃地的植被进行实地调查,分析了植物组成特征;并对不同重金属环境下相应的地区土壤种子库的组成、大小、季节动态变化以及多样性的影响进行分析,在此基础上,研究了土壤种子库与地上植被间的关系及土壤种子库对矿区废弃地的植被恢复中所作的贡献。主要结论如下:1)不同样地平均土壤种子库储量相差较大,其储量大小依次为:试验地(847粒/m2)>龙首矿绿化区(460粒/m2)>龙首矿开采废弃地(362粒/m2)>老尾矿砾石区(347粒/m2)>新尾矿自然植被区(336粒/m2)>龙首矿自然植被区(261粒/m2)>供暖公司柽柳林地(254粒/m2)。与其它荒漠地区比较,土壤种子库储量偏低。2)土壤种子库的Simpson多样性指数大小依次为:新尾矿周边自然植被区>龙首矿自然植被区>龙首矿开采废弃地>供暖公司柽柳林地。Shannon-Wiener多样性指数所表现出的趋势相同。Peilow均匀性指数依次为:新尾矿周边自然植被区>龙首矿自然植被区>龙首矿开采废弃地>老尾矿预试验地>龙首矿绿化区>老尾矿砾石区>供暖公司柽柳林地。而土壤种子库的Margalef指数则略有所不同。3)不同样地土壤种子库储量随季节变化趋势大致相似。除龙首矿绿化区外,其他样地的土壤种子库储量10月最高,随后开始减小,5月份减小至最低,随后开始增加。这与地上植被生长结实规律基本一致。种子主要是分布在0~5cm土层中,该层种子比例平均占到种子库全部种子数量的76.5%,随着土壤深度的增加,种子数量逐渐减少,5~10cm土层中种子比例是总数的23.5%,10cm以下几乎没有种子分布。4)不同重金属环境样地土壤种子库之间具有一定的差异性。3月、5月、7月和10月不同矿业废弃地土壤种子库之间的相似系数分别在0.1143~0.7273、0~0.3333、0.1538~0.6667和0.0690~0.5000范围内。5)分析了金昌不同矿业废弃地土壤中Ni、Cu和Cd含量,结果表明:土壤中Ni含量从大到小顺序为:龙首矿自然植被区(LZ)>龙首矿矿业废弃地(LK)>供暖公司柽柳林地(GH)>老尾矿砾石区(LS)>新尾矿周边自然植被区(GZ)>龙首矿绿化区(LL)>预试验地黄土(SY),其含量分别是背景值的1.5~12.91倍;土壤中Cu含量:GH>LK>LZ>LS>LL>GZ>SY,其含量是背景值的2.36~18.24倍;土壤中Cd含量:GH>LZ>LS>GZ>LL>LK>SY,其含量是背景值的5.7~113.28倍。6)在研究金昌尾矿重金属含量的基础上,分别对土壤中重金属含量与土壤中的种子库相关性分析,结果表明,二者呈显著的负相关性。7)不同重金属胁迫下,不同季节矿区地上植被与土壤种子库之间的相似性系数在0.11~0.52之间,表明地上植被与土壤种子库有一定程度的关联;进一步对地上植被密度与土壤种子库储量之间的相关性分析表明,地上植被密度与土壤种子库储量具有较高的正相关。8)从土壤种子库物种组成和密度特征来看,金昌不同矿区土壤种子库对地上植被恢复具有良好的潜力指标,物种相对丰富;土壤种子库种子以一年生草木和多年生草本为主,土壤种子库储量属于中等水平。结合幼苗调查,认为金昌不同矿区重金属环境中土壤种子库储量为中等水平,并具有一定的萌发能力,能够为该区植被恢复提供基本条件。

【Abstract】 Theory and technology of ecological restoration in mining wasteland of arid area is a hot issue at present. The difficulty of eco-environment management in this area was caused by the lack of water resources, heavy metal stress and optional plants limited . To study and screen plant resources, and discover the dominant germplasm resources and ecological restoration technology which would be used in administrating the large scale mining wasteland, is the base for ecological restoration in this area. In this thesis,characteristics of soil seed in heavy metal stress environment was studied, though which the ability of natural restoration was discussed. Based on field survey of vegetation in different mining wasteland,composition characteristics of plants, size, seasonal dynamic changes and diversity of soil seed bank in heavy metal environment were analyzed. Furthermore, the relationship between the soil seed bank and above-ground vegetation and potential of soil seed bank for restoration of mining wasteland were studied. The main results as follows:1 Characteristic of soil seed banks in different heavy metal environment1) Reserves of soil seed bank in different plots is very different. The ordination as follow:experimental field of old tailing land(847seeds/m2)> Greening area in Longshou mining region ( 362seeds/m2 ) > mining wasteland of Longshou mining region (347seeds/m2)> gravel beds of the old tailing land (347seeds/m2)> natural vegetation area around the new tailing land(336seeds/m2)> nature vegetation area of Longshou mining region (261seeds/m2) > cultivated Chinese Tamarisk forest land (254seeds/m2). Comparably, the reserves of soil seed bank in this region are lower than the other deserts.2) Ordination of Simpson diversity index of the soil seed banks as follow: natural vegetation area around the new tailing land > nature vegetation area of Longshou mining region > mining wasteland of Longshou mining region > cultivated Chinese Tamarisk forest. Shannon-Wiener diversity had the same trend as Simpson diversity . Peilow evenness index as follow: natural vegetation area around the new tailing land > natural vegetation area of Longshou mining region > mining wasteland of Longshou mining region > experimental field of old tailing land > Greening area in Longshou mining region > gravel beds of the old tailing land> cultivated Chinese Tamarisk forest .But the Margalef index of the soil seed bank was different.3)The seasonal trend of soil seed bank reserves in different plots is roughly similar. Except the Greening Greening area in Longshou mining region, the soil seed reserves of other plots were the most in October, Then began to decrease, the least was in May, and then began to increase. It was according with the growth and seed of above-ground vegetation. Seeds were mainly distributed in 0 to 5cm soil layer, which accounted for 76.5%. The number of seeds gradually decreased with increasing of soil depth. The number of seeds in 5 to 10cm soil layer accounted for 23.5%. It is nearly no seed in below 10cm soil layer.2. Response of characteristics of soil seed to heavy metal environment1) The soil seeds was different in the different heavy metal environments. In March, May, July and October, the similarity coefficient of soil seed bank in the different mining wastelands were 0.1143 to 0.7273, 0 to 0.3333、0.1538 to 0.6667 and 0.0690 to 0.5000, respectively.2) Content of Ni, Cu and Cd in different mining wasteland of Jinchang were analyed. The content of Ni in soil: nature vegetation area of Longshou mining region > mining wasteland of Longshou mining region > Chinese Tamarisk forest > gravel beds of the old tailing land> natural vegetation area around the new tailing land> natural vegetation area of Longshou mining region > experimental field of old tailing land. It was 1.5 to12.91 times of background value; The content of Cu in soil: GH> LK> LZ> LS> LL> GZ>SY. It is 2.36 to18.24 times of background value. The content of Cd in soil: GH> LZ> LS> GZ> LL>LK>SY. It is 5.7 to 113.28 times of background value.3)On the basis of studying on heavy metal content of tailing in Jinchang, correlationship between heavy metal content and the soil seed bank were analyzed, result of which was significantly negative correlation between them.4)In different seasons, the similarity coefficient of the standing vegetation and soil seed bank in mining area in different heavy metal stress was from 0.11to 0.52. This showed that the above-ground vegetation had positive correlation with soil seed banks.5)According the density characteristics and the species composition of soil seed bank, soil seed bank in different mining area contributed a lot for the above-ground vegetation. The soil seed bank mainly including annual herbs and perennial herbs belongs to meddle level. The soil seed bank has certain germination ability according the result of seeding investigation, and which can provide basic condition for vegetation restoration in this area.

  • 【CLC code】S154.4
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