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埃塞俄比亚提格雷土地荒漠化综合防治研究

The Research on the Desertification in the Comprehensive Treatment in Tigray Region of Ethiopia

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【Author in Chinese】 唐志燕

【Supervisor】 朱宁华

【Author's Information】 中南林业科技大学, 水土保持与荒漠化防治, 2009, 硕士

【Abstract in Chinese】 荒漠化是当今全球最严重的环境与社会经济问题之一。根据联合国公布的资料,目前全球有110多个国家、10亿多人受到荒漠化威胁,其中1.35亿人面临流离失所的危险。如何治理荒漠化对整个人类生存环境造成的威胁,成为了世界关注的共同话题。本文针对荒漠化地区治理工作开展了与之相关的技术研究。1.选择埃塞俄比亚高原为研究对象,以Hadnet流域为例,详细调查研究了该地区的自然条件和社会条件,得出该地区生态破坏、土地荒漠化是由当地恶劣的气候条件、人为对植被的破坏、不合理的农业耕作制度以及滥樵滥牧等因素导致的结论。其中恶劣的气候条件是致使该区生态破坏的主要因素,近代人为活动加速了生态破坏的过程。2.对台式整地、半月型整地、倒直角形整地及船壕整地4种林业生态恢复集雨整地技术措施进行了旱季土壤含水量变化的追踪研究,结果表明船壕整地法在整个旱季阶段内能保持较高的土壤水份。在干旱最严重的2、3月份,通过船壕整地法40公分深处土壤的水份含量,比对照分别高出9%和7.2%,是最适合该流域造林整地的方法。3.对谷访、侵蚀沟头防护等水土保持工程进行了试验研究,结果表明这些水土保持工程措施均对流域水土流失现象起到了抑制作用,为荒漠化区的治理创造了有利条件。对蓄水塘等水土保持工程进行了试验研究,对蓄水塘水保工程进行了调查研究,结果表明这些水土保持工程措施均能储存一定的水量以满足该流域的旱季各种用水需求。试验结果表明该区植被可以得到恢复,荒漠化趋势可以得以扭转,良好的生态环境可以建立,农、林、畜牧业产值可以提高,粮食不安全局面可以克服,当地农民可以根本改变贫穷落后的局面。

【Abstract】 The desertification is one of the most serious environmental and social problems in the world. The date that UN announced there were 110 countries (more than 1 billion person) under the threat of desertification. So that to take ecological restoring programs in the desertification areas are extremely urgent.1. The Ethiopia Highland was selected for the research. Base on the Hadnet watershed, the detailed investigation and research on the natural and social conditions were applied. Result showed that the desertification in this watershed was caused by the nasty meteorological conditions, the destruction of the vegetation by human being, the unreasonable farming, the unreasonable cutting for firewood, and the unreasonable grazing by the animals. The main factor which caused desertification in the watershed was the nasty meteorological conditions, and destructive activities by human being were belonged to subordinate site.2. Focus on the regularity of the soil moisture during dry season,4 different water harvesting site preparation techniques such as Contour Bench Terrace, Semi-circular bund, triangular bund and ship-shaped trench had been experimental researched. The result showed that the ship-shaped trench was the best technique for soil moisture keeping. The moisture percentage in 40cm depth of ship-shaped trench were 9%,7.2% higher in contrast to that in the same depth of normal land in February and in March.3. The soil and water conservation projects such as check dam and erosion protection measure of gully head had been experimentally researched. The results showed that both of them play important role in controlling water loss and soil erosion, and provided the suitable environmental conditions for the ecological restoring.The other soil and water conservation projects such as rooftop water harvesting system, small size pond and small sized reservoir had been experimentally researched or investigated; results showed that all of them could provide certain amount value water for different usages for the watershed in the dry season. The ground water had been experimentally explicated and the results showed that the ground water level in the upper reaches of the watershed was more than 50m deepness but not more than 3m in the lower reaches of the watershed.The results showed the forestry could be reflourished, desertification situation could be changed in the watershed; the ecosystem could be restored, the food insecurity situation could be solved and the poor and under-developed situation of local farmer could be changed ultimately.

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