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中亚主要湖泊水文遥感动态监测研究

Remote Sensing Dynamic Monitoring of Main Lakes’ Hydrology in Central Asia

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【Author in Chinese】 吴素云

【Supervisor】 周斌潘玉良

【Author's Information】 杭州师范大学, 理论物理, 2018, 硕士

【Abstract in Chinese】 湖泊是通过水位和面积等水文要素的动态变化来响应全球气候与环境变化,成为涵盖重要信息的载体,而水位和面积变化是降水、气温、蒸发等气候要素以及流域社会经济活动综合作用的结果,能从侧面反映出一个流域的水量平衡状态是否良好。对湖泊面积及水位变化规律的深入探究,可以为更好地掌握湖泊及其所在流域的动态变化特征提供支撑。近年来随着遥感技术的不断改进,为内陆湖泊水位、面积的监测提供了新的技术手段,能准确地的监测偏远内陆湖泊水位数据,并提供有效、持续的水位观测值。本文以Landsat影像以及Topex Poseidon/Jason-1/Jason-2数据为数据源,提取了中亚地区主要湖泊(艾比湖、巴尔喀什湖、赛里木湖、伊塞克湖、阿拉湖、萨瑟克湖和卡普恰盖水库)1990~2015年的面积及水位信息及其变化情况。本文将湖泊分为以下三种类型:平原地区的尾闾湖:面积变化较大的主要是艾比湖、巴尔喀什湖;高原封闭性湖泊:主要为赛里木湖,伊塞克湖与阿拉湖;吞吐湖:包括萨瑟克湖和卡普恰盖水库。对于不同湖泊类型的水文要素的变化情况不同,其主导因素自然也不同。由于封闭在高原高山中,且因其海拔,赛里木湖、伊塞克湖与阿拉湖与周围平原地区相比降水较为充沛。而且由于全球气候变暖,大型冰山积雪更多地融化,也就相应地增加了河流径流量与入湖水量。此外,高原地区人类活动较少,无工矿企业,用水量较少。但是对于平原地区的尾闾湖来说,气温的升高使得湖面蒸发量增加。由于大量径流在流出山口后被人类用于其灌溉活动,所以即便气温升高所得到的冰雪融水增加,却无法真正补给河流。气候的干燥温暖越发地增加人类的引水量,地表径流量大部分未能入湖,使得入湖的水量非但未增,反而减少。吞吐湖萨瑟克湖及卡普恰盖水库的面积的复杂及变化频繁的大部分原因是人类活动的影响。

【Abstract】 Lakes are sensitive indicators of climate and environmental changes and are important information carriers to uncover global climate change and regional responses.The dynamic change of lakes is the result of the combination of climatic factors such as precipitation,temperature,evaporation,and the social and economic activities in the basin,which can reflect the water balance of a basin.A full understanding of the changing patterns of lakes can better capture the dynamic changes of lakes and their basins.In recent years,with the continuous improvement of remote sensing technology,new technical means have been provided for the monitoring of water level and area of inland lakes,to make up for the lack of observation data remote inland lakes,and to provide effective and continuous observations.Based on the data of Landsat and Topex Poseidon/Jason-1/Jason-2,this paper extracted the main lakes(Ebinur Lake,Balkhash Lake,Sayram Lake,Issyk-Kul Lake,Alakol Lake,SaSykkol Lake and Kapchagay Reservoir)area and water level information and their changes from 1990 to 2015 in Central Asia.This article divides lakes into the following three types:Lakes in the Plains: Including Ebinur Lake and Lake Balkhash,whose area is more volatile;Alpine enclosed lakes: including Sayram Lake,Issyk-Kul Lake,and Alakol Lakes;Through Lake: Includes SaSykkol Lake and Kapchagay Reservoir.The dominant factors in the change of hydrological factors in different lake types are also different.The enclosed lakes in plateau(Salim Lake,Issyk Lake,and Lake Allah),are affected by elevation more abundant than the surrounding plains.In addition,affected by the increase in global temperatures,a large number of high-altitude snow and ice melted directly into the river,and the river runoff increased,and the amount of water entering the lake also increased.In addition,there are fewer human activities in the plateau,no industrial and mining enterprises,and less water consumption.However,for Lakes in the plain area,the increase of temperature increases the evaporation of the lake surface.Although the river runoff replenished by the glaciers increased with the warming of the climate,rivers were intercepted for irrigation,which result in that the climate became warmer and the irrigation water increased.The actual surface runoff into the lake was reduced..Compared with the downward trend in the lake area between the plains and the stable rising trend of the plateau closed lakes,the areas of SaSykkol Lake and Kapchagay Reservoir are complex and changeable and are mainly affected by human activities.

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