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基于沙漠边缘植被生态需水的水资源优化配置

Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Vegetation Ecological Water Demand in the Desert Marginal Zone

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【Author in Chinese】 纪德龙

【Supervisor】 李砚赵新俊

【Author's Information】 石河子大学, 数量生态学, 2018, 硕士

【Abstract in Chinese】 高速发展的工业化进程破坏了沙漠边缘区脆弱的生态环境,生态修复研究变得越来越重要。植被是沙漠边缘区生态系统最关键的元素,而水资源又是干旱区植被修复的关键所在,因此在水资源匮乏的沙漠边缘区基于植被生态需水的水资源优化配置势在必行。然而,在水资源保护因素下,植被生态恢复区各个子区域修复状况不同,因此子区域之间的植被生态缺水量也是不同的,这对基于植被生态需水的水资源优化配置有很大影响;同时,植被生态系统与经济发展的协调性也是水资源优化配置的主要内容。本文研究主要有四部分内容:一、由于植被覆盖度面积的大小和沙漠化侵蚀面积处于相互驱动的状态,所以此部分内容以类比传染病模型的形式,加入了水资源保护因素,建立植被恢复模型,研究了被侵蚀区植被生态系统的恢复状态,并利用微分几何理论,结合分析模型中参数之间的关系,讨论了模型的稳定性;并根据古尔班通古特沙漠南缘植被变化情况,验证了模型的适用性,从而确定水资源保护力度对植被恢复的影响。二、对区域进行单位化处理,以确定最优单位子区域,即植被覆盖度大小恰好可抵御沙漠侵蚀的区域,通过覆盖度计算公式,确定被侵蚀区域;基于潜水蒸发的计算方法,计算各个单位子区域的植被生态需水量,从而通过与最优单位子区域对比的形式,并结合水资源保护对植被生态系统的影响,估算其它子区域的植被生态缺水量,对水资源优化配置为植被生态恢复区补水量提供一定的理论依据。三、在考虑经济发展和科学技术进步的因素下,对用水户需水量和水源分布状况进行分析,以期为水资源优化配置提供合理的基本量。四、基于沙漠边缘区特殊的地理情况,确定水资源配置原则,以生活用水、经济效益和生态效益为目标,同时基于隶属度函数概念,加入具有评价功能的协调度目标,建立水资源优化配置模型;最后通过模拟求解,确定模型的可解性。综合以上各部分内容研究结果可知:植被生态恢复模型不仅可以最大化地节省植被恢复所需资源,同时还能掌控植被恢复状况,为基于植被生态需水的水资源优化配置提供依据;水资源优化配置模型在满足各用水户的基本用水需求外,还极大地平衡了植被生态用水与经济发展用水的协调性,满足可持续发展的基本要求。

【Abstract】 The rapidly developmental industrialization process is destroying fragile ecological environment in the desert marginal zone while ecological restoration is becoming more and more important.Because vegetation is the most important key element in vegetation restoration process and water source is the crux of vegetation restoration in arid areas,optimal allocation of water resources that based on vegetation ecological water is imperative.However,because of the differences about vegetation restoration condition of every unit area,the vegetation ecological water shortage is different,which has a big impact on the optimal allocation of water resources based on vegetation ecological water demand.Meanwhile,the harmony is also the primary content of optimal allocation of water resources between vegetation ecological system and economic development.This paper has four parts:Part one:Due to the size of the vegetation coverage erosion and desertification area is in a state of mutual drive,this part of the content,in the form of an analogy epidemic model,establishes the vegetation restoration model by the geometric theory of differential equation to study the state of vegetation restoration and the stability by analyzing relationships among parameters under water conservation factor in model.At last,according to vegetation coverage area variation of the south rim of Gurbantunggu,the model’s suitability is verified and the model also determines the impact of water conservation efforts on vegetation restoration.Part two:This part unitize the area to determine the optimal unit area,namely the size of the vegetation coverage area that can resist the erosion of desert,and determine the erosion unit area by the coverage calculation formula.Vegetation ecological water demand of every unit area is calculated by the method based on ground evaporation,and the vegetation ecological water shortage of other unit areas is calculated by contrasting.It provides some theoretical basis for water resources optimization.Part three:Considering the factors of economic development and the progress of science and technology,water users and water distribution are analyzed for providing the optimal allocation of water resources reasonable basic amount.Part four:Based on the desert marginal zone special geographical situation,the water resources allocation principles is determined and water resources optimal allocation model is established by joining living water,economic efficiency,the ecological environment efficiency and the harmony which own the evaluation function based on membership functions between economic efficiency and ecological efficiency;Finally through the simulation solution,the effectiveness of the model is determined.Based on the above contents,we can see that the vegetation restoration model can not only minimize the resources needed for vegetation restoration,but also controls the vegetation restoration status,and provides basis for the optimal allocation of water resources based on the ecological water demand of vegetation;In addition to satisfying the basic water demand of each water user,the optimal allocation model of water resources also greatly balances the coordination of ecological water use for vegetation and water for economic development and meets the basic requirements for sustainable development.

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