A Preliminary Study of the Spatial Layout and Automatic Optimizing of Street Zones in Dry and Hot Regions Based on Heat Comfort Demand
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【Author in Chinese】 殷晨欢；
【Author's Information】 东南大学， 建筑设计及其理论（专业学位）， 2018， 硕士
【Abstract in Chinese】 随着前所未有的快速城市化进程,我国城市规模不断扩张,城市拥挤、能源紧缺和气候变暖等生态环境问题日益凸显,尤其是城市微气候环境不断恶化。我国西北地区干热气候特征显著,高温、干旱、多沙尘暴,有必要借助多学科的最新研究成果,针对性提出缓解城市环境压力、提高城市宜居品质的有效方法。论文以此为出发点,以满足干热地区外部空间人体热舒适需求为具体目标,结合参数化自动寻优技术,尝试建立一套基于热舒适需求的街区空间布局自动生成与寻优的方法路径,以适用于干热地区城市街区尺度的微气候改善问题。论文针对城市街区层级的微气候环境展开研究。首先简要介绍了对城市微气候影响较大的4种气候要素:风、太阳辐射、温度和湿度;按照建筑单体—建筑群—街区—城市的不同层级秩序分析阐释建筑基本型、街道空间形态、容积率、建筑密度、开放空间布局、高层建筑布局等城市空间形态与城市气候要素之间的相互影响与关联。论文以探求干热地区夏季的室外人体热舒适最优为目标,通过基于Rhino与Grasshopper计算机平台的遗传算法来控制城市形态要素的参数,使用Ladybug等插件进行气候模拟,从而生成既定条件下的最优街区布局方案。首先,在容积率、建筑密度可变的条件下,对干热地区的街区布局进行优化。通过分析街区形态指标随UTCI的优化而呈现出的变化趋势,利用数学统计对形态要素对街区的平均室外人体舒适度的影响度进行回归分析,筛选出相关要素并形成定量回归方程。其次,在相同的容积率和建筑密度设定条件下,选择柱式、条式、点式、庭院式4种类型街区形式进行街区布局寻优实验。根据研究展现出的寻优结果,论文对柱式、条式、点式、庭院式4种街区的特点及其干热气候地区的适应程度进行比对分析。第三,依据在理想街区模型条件下得出的结论的基础上,选择喀什市中心某街区进行实际的街区布局寻优研究。通过将点式、条式、柱式3种基本型进行街区尺度的混合布局,得出相对于原基地较优的布局方案,进一步表明遗传算法在实际案例的具体约束条件下可以稳定进化发展,优化出有针对性的较理想的布局方案。最后,针对干热地区基于室外热舒适需求的城市设计策略进行总结,系统提出论文的创新研究成果、有效的技术方法等,同时也指出利用优化算法在干热气候条件下的城市街区布局时存在的局限性,进而提出对未来城市微气候研究的展望与建议。
【Abstract】 Along with the unprecedented rapid process of urbanization,the scale of Chinese cities has been expanding continuously,and urban congestion,energy shortage,climate warming and other ecological and environmental problems have been becoming more and more prominent.In particular,the micro-climatic environment of cities has been worsening continuously,and northwestern China shows a conspicuous dry and hot climatic feature,marked by a high air temperature,aridity and dust storms.It is necessary for us to,with the help of the multidisciplinary updated research achievements,pertinently propose effective methods to alleviate the pressure of urban environment and improve the livable quality of cities.With this as a starting point,and with “meeting the heat comfort demand of human bodies in external spaces in dry and hot regions” as a specific objective,in connection with the technique of parametric automatic optimizing,this paper attempts to set up a set of methods and paths of automatic generation and optimizing of the spatial layout of street zones based on heat comfort demand,so as to apply to the micro-climatic improvement of street zone scales in cities in dry and hot regions.This paper studies the micro-climatic environment of the urban street-zone hierarchy.First,this paper makes a brief introduction to the four climatic factors that have a major impact on urban micro-climate: wind,solar radiation,temperature and humidity;analyzes and interprets the interaction and correlation between the basic types of buildings,the spatial forms of streets,plot ratio,building density,open-space layout,high-rise building layout and other urban spatial forms and the climatic factors of cities according to the different hierarchic sequence of mono-buildings-building complex-street zone-city.With “exploring the optimism of outdoor heat comfort of human bodies in summer in dry and hot regions” as an objective,this paper controls the parameters of urban form factors through the generic algorithm based on the Rhino and Grasshopper computer platform,and carries out climatic simulation by using Ladybug and other plug-ins,thus generating the optimal proposal of street zone layout under the given conditions.First,under the condition of the changeable plot ratio and building density,this paper optimizes the street zone layout in dry and hot regions,and conducts regressive analysis to the degree of the impact of form factors on the average outdoor human-body comfort of street zones by analyzing the changing trend presented by the form indicators of street zones along with the UTCI optimization and using mathematical statistics,and screens out relevant factors and forms the quantitative regressive equation.Next,under the given condition of the same plot ratio and building density,this paper selects such four street-zone types as pavillon type,strip type,micro-pavillon type and courtyard type for the experiment of street-zone layout optimizing.According to the optimizing result unfolded by the research,this paper carries out comparative analysis to the characteristics of such four street-zone types as column type,strip type,dot type and courtyard type and the degree of their adaptability to regions with a dry and hot climate.Third,based on the conclusion reached under the condition of an ideal street-zone model,this paper selects a street zone in downtown Kashi City for an actual study of street-zone layout optimizing.By conducting the mixed layout of street-zone scales to such three basic types as micro-pavillon type,strip type and pavillon type,this paper obtains a better layout proposal than the original base,further indicates that generic algorithm can evolve and develop steadily under the specific restrictive condition of the actual case,and works out a pertinent ideal layout proposal through optimization.Finally,this paper summarizes the urban design strategy based on the demand of outdoor heat comfort in dry and hot regions,systematically proposes the innovative research achievement,effective techniques,etc.of this paper,and also points out the limitation of using the optimization algorithm for the street-zone layout of cities under the condition of dry and hot climate,and thus proposes the prospect and suggestion to the study of the micro-climate of future cities.