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锡林浩特荒漠化草原常见地衣鉴定与元素组成特征研究

Identification and Element Composition of Ubiquitous Lichens in A Desertified Grassland of Xilinhot,Inner Mongolia,North China

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【Author in Chinese】 刘四娃

【Supervisor】 刘华杰

【Author's Information】 河北大学, 微生物学, 2017, 硕士

【Abstract in Chinese】 地衣是生命周期长、生长缓慢和地理分布广泛的共生生物,其可吸附和累积超过自身需求的元素量,是监测大气沉降物最具优势的类群之一,已被广泛应用。但对受沙尘影响较大的荒漠化草原区域,缺乏此类的研究。本文对位于内蒙古锡林浩特市东南部的荒漠化草原400 km2内16个样点,进行了地衣采集和生态调查。基于142份标本的传统分类学鉴定结果,发现本研究区域内11科21属46种地衣,优势种属共9属24种,隶属于蜈蚣衣科(Physciaceae)和梅衣科(Parmeliaceae)。生态学研究结果表明,研究区域内:1)地衣生长基物多样,包括树生(16种)、石生(14)、土生(13)、石上土生(11)和藓土生(2);2)地衣生长型以叶状为主(38种),壳状为辅(8种);3)11属19种地衣分布较广(至少3个样点),为常见地衣,适合纳入元素含量特征分析中,即:旱黄梅衣(Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis;XPC)、红脐鳞(Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca;RZC)、中国树花(Ramalina sinesis;RS)、丽石黄衣(Xanthoria elegans;XE)、白腹黑蜈蚣衣(Phaeophyscia denigrata;PHD)、斑面蜈蚣衣(Physcia aipolia;PA)、矮座石蕊(Cladonia humilis;CH)、三苔色酸褐衣(Melanelia tominii;MT)、橄榄黑尔衣(Melanohalea olivacea;MO)、粉芽盾衣(Peltula euploca;PET)、皮毛黑蜈蚣衣(Phaeophyscia hirtella;PHHe)、白刺毛黑蜈蚣衣(Phaeophyscia hirtuosa;PHHu)、糙蜈蚣衣(Physcia tribacia;PT)、变色大孢蜈蚣衣(Physconia detersa;PCD)、颗粒大孢蜈蚣衣(Physconia grumosa;PCG)、垫脐鳞(Rhizoplaca melanophthalma;RZM)、暗腹黄梅衣(Xanthoparmelia tinctina;XPT)、拟石黄衣(Xanthoria fallax;XF)、中国石黄衣(Xanthoria mandschurica;XM)。其中前6种地衣分布最广(至少6个样点)。用电感耦合等离子质谱仪(ICP-MS),对土壤和19种常见地衣,进行30种化学元素(Al、Ba、Ca、Cd、Ce、Cr、Cs、Cu、Fe、K、La、Mg、Mn、Mo、Na、Ni、P、Pb、Rb、S、Sb、Sc、Sm、Sr、Tb、Th、Ti、Tl、V和Zn)的含量测定。利用多元统计分析方法、富集系数(EF)和土壤颗粒物沾染程度(Fe/Ti)等参数,分析地衣体内元素含量来源,比较物种对元素累积能力的异同性和影响因素;并与国内外同类研究比较了元素含量大小。研究结果表明:1)地衣的元素含量水平测定能够反映环境格局:本区域大气沉降特征为沙尘输入量大,是大气元素沉降的主要来源(主要因素),公路交通是主要的人类活动污染;2)地衣对元素的累积在地衣物种之间具有差异性和相同性,生态学和形态学特征是其影响因素之一。依据物种土壤源元素和Ca元素的累积差异,将地衣分为四组:富土集Ca(CH、XPT、PCD和MO)、富土贫Ca(PHHu、PT、XE、PET和XM)、贫土集Ca(RZM、RZC、MT、RS、PCG和XPC)和贫土贫Ca(PA、XF、PHD和PHHe);3)有7种地衣(XPT、RZC、RZM、PET、MT、XPC和RS)可反映人类活动来源的污染元素,其中树生叶状的中国树花(Ramalina sinesis:RS)、石生壳状的红脐鳞衣(Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca:RZC)和土生叶状的旱黄梅衣(Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis:XPC),分布广泛且土壤元素含量低,可区分人类活动源和地壳源元素,是本区域大气污染监测的最佳地衣。综上所述,本研究区内地衣物种资源丰富,荒漠化环境对地衣元素组成的影响明显,人类活动影响较小。中国树花(Ramalina sinesis)、红脐鳞衣(Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca)和旱黄梅衣(Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis)是本区域内最佳监测大气污染沉降的地衣物种。

【Abstract】 The lichens are symbiotic organisms with long lifecycle,slow growth and widely geographical distribution.They have been known as one of the most efficient organism widely used in biomonitoring atmospheric elemental deposition,adsorbing and accumulating elements much higher than their physiological requirements.However,study on their performance in this regard in desertified grassland areas with high dust input is still lacking.Lichen were collected and investigated in 16 sample sites sizing 400 km2 within a desertified grassland of Inner Mongolia,North China.The taxonomical study on 142 specimens show that 46 species belonging to 11 genera and 21 families were identified,among which 24 species belonging to 9 genera of Physciaceae and Parmeliaceae were dominant in the study area.Ecological study show: 1)a substrate diversity of lichens,with 16 corticolous lichens,14 saxicolous species,13 terricolous species,11 species on soil covered rocks,and 2 species on moss covered soil;2)the lichen is dominated by foliose lichens(38species)and crustose lichens(8 species);and 3)19 speceis belonging to 11 genera were ubiquitous lichens occupying at least 3 sampling sites in the study,they are Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis(XPC),Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca(RZC),Ramalina sinesis(RS),Xanthoria elegans(XE),Phaeophyscia denigrata PHD),Physcia aipolia(PA),Cladonia humilis(CH),Melanelia tominii(MT),Melanohalea olivacea(MO),Peltula euploca(PET),Phaeophyscia hirtella(PHHe),Phaeophyscia hirtuosa(PHHu),Physcia tribacia(PT),Physconia detersa(PCD),Physconia grumosa(PCG),Rhizoplaca melanophthalma(RZM),Xanthoparmelia tinctina(XPT),Xanthoria fallax(XF),Xanthoria mandschurica(XM).The 19 ubiquitous lichens were included in the analysis of elemental composition analyses.Thirty elements(Al,Ba,Ca,Cd,Ce,Cr,Cs,Cu,Fe,K,La,Mg,Mn,Mo,Na,Ni,P,Pb,Rb,S,Sb,Sc,Sm,Sr,Tb,Th,Ti,Tl,V and Zn)in surface soil and 19 ubiquitous lichens were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS).The sources of element content and influencing factors on accumulation capability of lichens were analysed by multivariate statistical,enrichment factor(EF)and soil particle contamination degree(Fe/Ti).The data were also compared to relevant studies.The results show that: 1)lichen elemental composition can be used to characterize the elemental input of environments.In the study sites,as expected,dust input is a main source ofelements composition in lichens,and road traffic,a main anthropogenic sources human activity pollution,is a secondary source;2)Similarities and dissimilarities were found between lichen species in accumulating capability of elements,and are highly influenced by the ecological and morphological characteristics of lichens.According to levels of terrigenous element and Ca,four groups were recognized: high terrigenous and Ca group(CH,XPT,PCD and MO),low terrigenous and Ca group(PA,XF,PHD and PHHe),high terrigenous with low Ca group(PHHu,PT,XE,PET and XM),and low terrigenous with high Ca(RZM,RZC,MT,RS,PCG and XPC);and 3)Seven lichens(XPT,RZC,RZM,PET,MT,XPC and RS)can be used as biomonitors for anthropogenic elements,in which Ramalina sinesis(RS),Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca(RZC)and Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis(XPC)were the best choices.In conclusion,lichens were abundant in the area and their elemental composition has been highly influenced by the desertified environments.Ramalina sinesis,Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca and Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis are the best species to monitoring the deposition of air pollutants in this area.

  • 【Contributor】 河北大学
  • 【Year of Internet Publish】201801
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