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浑善达克沙地植被恢复中几个问题的研究

Approaches to Ecological Restoration of the Vegetation in Otingdag Sand Land, China

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【Author in Chinese】 宋创业

【Supervisor】 郭柯

【Author's Information】 中国科学院研究生院(植物研究所), 生态学, 2006, 硕士

【Abstract in Chinese】 浑善达克沙地位于内蒙古自治区锡林郭勒高原中部,是我国温带草原区最主要的沙地之一。由于沙质土壤特性和大陆性季风气候等自然条件的限制,长期过度放牧导致了沙地植被退化、固定沙丘活化等一系列环境问题,进而威胁到区域生态安全和可持续发展。恢复和重建退化了的沙地植被,防止沙漠化的进一步扩大已经刻不容缓。本论文的目的是揭示沙地植被类型与环境的生态关系、沙地植物群落结构特点以及播种时期对沙地人工草地青贮玉米产量的影响,为在沙漠化防治中选择合适的治沙物种、制定合理的植被恢复方案、确定符合当地气候特点的人工草地最佳播种时间等提供理论依据。论文包括三方面的内容:1浑善达克沙地中部丘间低地植物群落分布与土壤环境因子关系;2浑善达克沙地中部植物群落物种多样性与土壤环境因子关系;3播期对浑善达克沙地青贮玉米产量的影响。对在浑善达克沙地中部丘间低地上获取的102个植物群落样方进行了分析,按照样方中建群种和优势种的重要值把它们归属于28个植物群落类型。对102个群落样方进行去趋势典范对应分析(DCCA),结果表明DCCA排序轴第一轴主要代表地下水位的变化梯度;第二轴主要代表土壤的全氮含量和有机质含量的变化梯度;第三轴则代表土壤溶液的酸碱度值,即地下水位、土壤有机质、全氮含量和土壤溶液酸碱度影响沙地丘间低地植物群落的分布格局。对流动-半流动沙丘、固定沙丘、丘间低地和淖尔边缘湖沼等四种生境的物种多样性研究结果表明,分布在流动沙丘-半流动沙丘的植物群落的物种丰富度指数和物种多样性指数最低,生态优势度指数较高,均匀度指数相对较高;固定沙丘的物种丰富度指数、物种多样性指数和均匀度指数较高,优势度指数较低;丘间低地和淖尔边缘湖沼的植物群落的物种丰富度指数,多样性指数低于固定沙丘的,但是高于流动-半流动沙丘的,优势度指数高于固定沙丘的,均匀度指数低于流动-半流动沙丘的。各个指数和土壤环境因子的相关分析表明,土壤溶液的酸碱度、土壤全氮和有机质含量与物种多样性有着较强的相关关系。人工草地青贮玉米分期播种的实验结果显示:随着播期的推迟,英红玉米的地上生物量由2453±161kg/hm2降至1055±68kg/hm2;巴贮玉米的地上生物量由

【Abstract】 Otindag Sand Land lies in the middle of Xilin Gol plateau, Inner Mogolia, China. It is one of the sand land in the steppe zone of China. Long-term immoderate exploration of the sandy grassland had resulted in the vegetation degradation and a series of environmental problems, such as activation of fixed sand dunes and sandstorm breakout. These problems threaten the ecological safety and impact the sustainable development of economy and society. So, it is very urgent to restore the vegetation and prevent further extension of the problems.The aim of this research is to reveal the ecological relationships between the vegetation and its environment, between the plant species diversity and the soil environmental factors, to understand the effect of sowing time on the yield of maize for silage in Otingdag sand land, and further to provide theory evidence for selection of optimal species and planning feasible approaches of vegetation restoration. This thesis includes: 1 the relationship between plant community and soil on the inter-dune lowland of Otindag Sand Land; 2 the relationship between the plant species diversity and the soil environmental factors in the middle of Otingdag sand land; 3 effect of sowing time on the yield of maize for silage in Otingdag sand land.In order to study the relationship between vegetation types of inter-dune lowland of Otindag Sand Land and factors of soil,a vegetation survey was conducted in the summer of 2004. 102 samples collected during the survey were classified into twenty-eight groups based on the species important values and dominant species. The first axis of detrended canonical correspondence analysis(DCCA) denoted the change of ground water level and the factors such as pH values,contents of soluble sodium and soluble potassium which are related to ground water level. The second axis of

  • 【CLC code】X171.4
  • 【Downloads】377
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