Effects of Different Tillage Methods on Eco-physiological Characteristics Related with Photosynthesis of Spring Wheat in Semi-arid Area
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【Author in Chinese】 练宏斌；
【Author's Information】 甘肃农业大学， 作物栽培学与耕作学， 2008， 硕士
【Abstract in Chinese】 通过在黄土高原半干旱地区采用不同耕作措施的田间定位试验,对春小麦光合生理生态特性、干物质积累与分配特性以及产量效应进行了分析研究,主要结论如下:1.不同耕作措施对旗叶光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、水分利用效率(WUE)、气孔导度(Gs)和胞间CO2浓度(Ci)影响最为显著的生育时期分别是乳熟期、孕穗期、乳熟期、开花期和灌浆期。生育时期对Pn、Tr、WUE和Gs的影响大于耕作措施对其影响。保护性耕作春小麦旗叶具有较强的光合能力,免耕+秸秆覆盖(NTS)、免耕(NT)、免耕+地膜覆盖(NTP)、传统+秸秆覆盖(TS)、传统+地膜覆盖(TP)5种保护性耕作措施旗叶的平均Pn较传统耕作(T)分别提高了8.97%、4.08%、15.17%、9.46%和11.26%,在开花期和乳熟期各种保护性耕作措施下旗叶面积、单株旗叶日同化量以及开花期的日累积光合量较T均较大。2.各种不同保护性耕作措施下群体的叶面积指数(LAI)、光合势(LAD)、群体光合速率(CAP)较T均有提高。其中,NTS、NT、NTP、TS、TP从分蘖到蜡熟期的平均LAI分别比提高了33.85%、13.85%、46.15%、15.38%和20.00%,从分蘖到蜡熟期的平均LAD分别提高了33.33%、14.29%、44.44%、14.29%和19.05%。除TS外,NTS、NT、NTP及TP从分蘖到乳熟期的CAP分别提高了24.04%、14.08%、11.27%和13.68%。处理间LAI,LAD和CAP差异最为显著的生育时期是蜡熟期、灌浆到乳熟期,分蘖期。LAD与作物产量的关系最为密切,每个生育阶段的LAD与产量的相关关系均达到显著或极显著性相关水平,而拔节期、孕穗期、灌浆期、乳熟和蜡熟期的LAI与产量呈现极显著性相关关系,孕穗期的CAP以及开花期旗叶Pn分别与产量具有显著性相关和极显著性相关关系。3.各种不同的保护性耕作措施均有利于春小麦干物质积累量的提高。与T相比较,NTS、NT、NTP、TS和TP 5种保护性耕作措施在整个生育期的平均干物质积累量分别提高了22.97%、1.64%、20.47%、5.92%和7.06%。在各生育时期不同处理间植株干物质积累量均存在显著差异,其中分蘖期处理间干物质积累量差异最为明显。抽穗后,NTP处理向穗部转移的干物质的量大于其它几种处理,转换率较高;TS处理下小麦籽粒的调运能力较好。4.实施保护性耕作同时可以提高春小麦的产量以及产量水平的水分利用效率(WUE)。与T相比, NTS、NT、NTP、TS和TP 5种保护性耕作措施的产量分别提高了68.10%、12.82%、64.98%、18.66%和30.33%; NTS、NT、NTP、TS和TP处理的WUE分别较T提高了68.75%、23.96%、66.67%、21.88%和55.21%,处理间差异显著。在产量构成三要素中,处理间千粒重和单位面积穗数没有显著性差异,而处理间穗粒数的差异极其显著。同时,产量与穗粒数呈现极显著性正相关(R=0.96**),与单位面积穗数,千粒重相关性不显著。
【Abstract】 Studied on effects of different tillage methods on photosynthetic eco– physiological characteristics, dry matter accumulation and distribution properties and yield of spring wheat by field located experiment field in semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau, the main results showed as the following:1. The growth stages in which the different tillage methods had the greatest effect on Pn,Tr,WUE,Gs and Ci were milking, booting, milking, flowering and filling respectively. The effect of the growth stage on the Pn,Tr,WUE,Gs and Ci was greater than that under the different tillage methods. The flag leaf of the spring wheat had powerful Photosynthetic capacity under the conservative tillage methods ,compared with T, the average Pn of the other five conventional tillage methods, namely, NTS,NT,NTP,TSandTP could be improved by 8.97%,4.08%,15.17%,9.46%and 11.26% respectively, the flag leaf area, diurnal photosynthetic capacity, and diurnal photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf per plant under conservative tillage methods were greater than that under T.2. Compared with T, the average LAI, LAD and CAP could be improved under different conservative methods. Form tillering to vax-ripe stage, the average LAI under NTS, NT, NTP, TSand TP improved by33.85%, 13.85%, 46.15%, 15.38%and 20.00% respectively, and the average LAD under them improved by 33.33%,14.29%, 44.44%,14.29%and19.05% respectively. The average CAP of NTS, NT, NTP,TP improved by 24.04%,14.08%, 11.27%and 13.68% respectively except TS form tillering.to milking. The growth stages in which the different tillage methods had the greatest effect on LAI, LAD and CAP were vax-ripe stage, filling to milking, tillering respectively.The relationship between the LAD and grain yield was very intimate, and the LAD in every growth stage was significantly or very significantly correlated to the yield, and the LAI in jointing, booting, filling, milking and vax-ripe stage was very significantly correlated to the yield, The CAP in booting and Pn in flowering were significantly and very significantly correlated to the yield respectively.3. Compared with T, the conservative tillage methods were good for the dry matter accumulation.The average dry matter accumulation under NTS, NT NTP, TS and TP improved by 22.97%, 1.64%,20.47%, 5.92% and 7.06% on the growth stage, the dry matter accumulation under the different tillage methods was very different in every stage,and the growth stage in which the different tillage methods had the greatest effect on dry matter accumulation was tillering.Aftering heading stage,the dry matter transferred into spikes uder NTP was greater than that under other treatments,and the conversion rateunder NTP better than that under other treatments; the ability of allocation and transportation of wheat grain under TS was better than that under other treatments.4. Enforcing conservatively tilling could improved the grain yield and WUE. Compared with T, the yield under the NTS, NT ,NTP,TSand TP improved by 68.10%,12.82%,64.98%,18.66%and30.33% respectively;and the WUE improved by 68.75%,23.96%,66.67%,21.88%and55.21% respectively,and the difference was significant.Among the three basic components of the grain yield, the1000-grain weight and spike number per unit area had no great difference, but grain number per spike had great difference among the different tillage methods. Meanwhile, the grain yield had significant positive correlation to grain number per spike(R=0.96**), and it was not correlated to the1000-grain weight and spike number per unit area.