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绿洲灌区小麦//玉米田间水分的蒸散特性及主要影响因素

Characterization of Evapotranspiration Rules and Their Influencing Factors in Wheat-corn Intercropping Field in Oasis Area

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【Author in Chinese】 刘海亮

【Supervisor】 柴强

【Author's Information】 甘肃农业大学, 作物栽培学与耕作学, 2009, 硕士

【Abstract in Chinese】 小麦//玉米是我国西北地区,特别是河西绿洲灌区重要的高产种植模式,但是受水资源不足和间作灌溉技术落后的影响,间作应用面临重大挑战,研发高效节水间作技术已成为该区种植业发展亟待解决的问题。本研究在不同供水水平和小麦不同留茬方式下,对小麦//玉米的产量、水分利用效率、耗水量、棵间蒸发量及其主要影响因子进行了试验研究。主要结论如下:1.间作可提高小麦、玉米的土地利用效率,高供水水平有利于间作产量的提高,小麦高留茬收割对间作产量的影响不显著。低、中、高三个供水水平下,未留茬小麦//玉米和高留茬小麦//玉米的土地当量比分别在1.20~1.25和1.19~1.30之间,供水和留茬对间作土地当量比的影响不显著;同模式不同供水处理间相比,高供水水平单作小麦、单作玉米、未留茬小麦//玉米、留茬小麦//玉米的产量分别较低供水处理和中供水处理高10.8%和4.8%、15.9%和4.7%、15.5%和9.2%、22.2%和1.2%。2.小麦//玉米的全生育期耗水总量、棵间蒸发量、棵间蒸发量占总耗水量(E/ET)的比例均高于单作小麦与单作玉米,同种种植模式内,随供水水平的提高,作物全生育期的耗水总量呈增大趋势,小麦高留茬对各灌水水平间作复合群体的总耗水量影响不同。低、中、高三个供水水平下,未留茬小麦//玉米与高留茬小麦//玉米生育期总耗水量分别高于单作小麦与单作玉米加权平均24.4%~26.3%和23.4%~25.4%;生育期平均日棵间蒸发量分别高于单作小麦与单作玉米加权平均4.4%~7.1%和0.8%~2.6%,E/ET分别高于单作小麦与单作玉米加权平均7.8%~9.7%和2%~2.6%。单作小麦、单作玉米、未留茬小麦//玉米、高留茬小麦//玉米的高灌量处理生育期总耗水量分别比相应的中灌量处理高11.7%、8.7%、10.8%、9.9%,比低灌量处理高22.9%、17.7%、23.7%、21.2%。3.间作的水分利用效率高于单作小麦和单作玉米,单作玉米、高留茬小麦//玉米的中供水水平以及单作小麦、未留茬小麦//玉米的低供水水平有利于提高水分利用效率,留茬收割对间作水分利用效率的影响不显著。低、中、高三个供水水平下,未留茬小麦//玉米与高留茬小麦//玉米水分利用效率分别高于单作小麦与单作玉米加权平均1.9%~6.6%和2.4%~13.3%;单作玉米、高留茬小麦//玉米的中供水水平处理的水分利用效率分别高于低供水水平处理和高供水水平处理2.8%和1.9%和3.6%和10.2%,单作小麦、未留茬小麦//玉米的低供水水平处理的水分利用效率高于中供水水平处理和高供水水平处理5.8%和17%、8.1%和3.9%。4.作物的棵间蒸发、土壤温度、土壤含水量、降水量、灌水量、耗水量与产量之间均呈极显著正相关。影响小麦//玉米蒸散的主要因素之间,棵间蒸发、土壤温度、降水量、灌水量、耗水量、产量与水分利用效率均呈显著正相关,土壤含水量与水分利用效率呈弱正相关。间作的土壤温度、土壤含水量均高于单作小麦和单作玉米,土壤含水量随着土壤深度的增加而增加,麦收后,土壤含水量表现为小麦带>间隔带>玉米带。低、中、高三个供水水平下,未留茬小麦//玉米与高留茬小麦//玉米生育期内平均土壤温度分别高于单作小麦与单作玉米加权平均0.4%~1%和0.5%~3.7%,全生育期0~150cm土壤平均含水量分别高于单作小麦与单作玉米加权平均2.9%~4.1%和2.4%~5.1%,麦收后,小麦带土壤含水量较间隔带高9.5%,较玉米带高11.1%。

【Abstract】 Wheat-corn intercropping is a high-yield culture pattern in northwestern of our country, especially in HEXI oasis irrigation area. Unfortunately, because of the limit of water resource and backward irrigation techniques, the extensions of intercropping methods are facing many resistances. Therefore, the exploitation and development of intercropping techniques characterizing with high efficiency and water-saving are becoming urgent problems. By controlling water supplication and stubble height, the yield, water use efficiency, water consumption, soil evaporation and their impact factors were determined in this study. The main results were as follows:1. Intercropping promoted the efficiency of land utilization for wheat and corn planting; high level of water supplication benefited the yield of intercropping, but harvesting wheat with high stubble left didn’t significantly affected it. With low, moderate or high water supplication, wheat-corn intercropping without stubble and that with high stubble had land equivalent ratios (LER) of 1.20~1.25 and 1.19~1.30, respectively, indicating that water supplication and stubble holding did not soundly impacted on LER. Compared to that of moderate and low water supplication, the yields were promoted by employing high water supplication in the same cultivation patterns, e.g. the later one contributed 0.8% and 4.8%、15.9% and 4.7%、15.5% and 9.2%、22.2% and 1.2% higher yields than the former two supplication levels in wheat monoculture, corn monoculture, wheat-corn intercropping without stubble and wheat-corn intercropping with stubble.2. In whole life period, total water consumption, water evaporation, and the value of water evaporation to total water consumption (E/ET) by employing wheat-corn intercropping than wheat monoculture or corn monoculture; Furthermore, within a same culture pattern, the more the water supplied, the more the water consumed; Third, high wheat stubble had different effects on total water consumption depending on the levels of water irrigation. Within the same level of water supplication, e.g., low, moderate and high levels, wheat-corn intercropping without stubble and wheat-corn intercropping with stubble consumed 24.4%~26.3% and 23.4%~25.4% more water than wheat monoculture and corn monoculture, respectively; in the case daily water evaporation, these value were 4.4%~7.1% and 0.8%~2.6% bigger in average, respectively; and for E/ET value, they were 7.8%~9.7% and 2%~2.6% bigger in average, respectively. With high level of water supplication, total water consumption were 11.7%, 8.7%, 10.8% and 9.9% higher than that of modulate supplication and 22.9%, 17.7%, 23.7% and 21.2% higher than that of low supplication within the patterns of wheat monoculture, corn monoculture, wheat-corn intercropping without stubble and wheat-corn intercropping with stubble. 3. Intercropping had a higher efficiency of water utilization than wheat or corn monoculture. It was useful for the promotion of water use efficiency that wheat monoculture, corn monoculture, wheat-corn intercropping with high stubble, under the condition of modulate water supplication, and that of wheat-corn intercropping without stubble combined with low water supplication. The ways of stubble-retaining harvesting did not greatly affect the water use efficiency. Within the same level of water supplication, e.g., low, moderate and high levels, wheat-corn intercropping without stubble and wheat-corn intercropping with high stubble consumed 1.9%~6.6% and 2.4%~13.3% more water than wheat monoculture and corn monoculture, respectively. Compared with low and high water supplication, modulate supplication resulted in 2.8% and 1.9%, 3.6% and 10.2% higher water use efficiency in corn monoculture and wheat-corn intercropping with high stubble, respectively. In addition, wheat monoculture and wheat-corn intercropping without stubble had 5.8% and 17%, 8.1% and 3.9% higher water sue efficiency with low water supplication than with modulate or high water supplication, respectively.4. Under the pattern of intercropping, all the factors of soil evaporation, soil temperature, soil water content, rainfall amount, irrigation amount and water consumption were very significantly correlated with the yield, respectively. And those factors of soil evaporation, soil temperature, rainfall amount, irrigation amount, water consumption and yield were very significantly correlated with the water use efficiency, respectively. Soil water content only weakly positive correlated with water use efficiency.Both soil temperature and soil water content were higher in intercropping than that in monoculture of wheat or corn; soil water content increased as the soil depth increasing; soil water content showed decreasing from wheat belt to interval zone to corn belt. Within the same level of water supplication of low, moderate and high levels, compared those of wheat-corn intercropping without stubble and wheat-corn intercropping with high stubble to those of wheat monoculture and corn monoculture, soil temperatures were 0.4%~1% and 0.5%~3.7% higher, respectively; Soil water content of 0~150cm depth were 2.9%~4.1% and 2.4%~5.1% higher in average, respectively. After harvesting of wheat, wheat belt had 9.5% more soil content than interval zone and 11.1% more than corn belt.

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