The Characteristics of Household Pasture Stocking Rate and Influencing Factors in Inner Mongolia Grassland
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【Author in Chinese】 杨正荣；
【Author's Information】 兰州大学， 农业·草业（专业学位）， 2018， 硕士
【Abstract in Chinese】 近年来,草原生态持续退化问题成为全社会关注的焦点。如何遏制草原退化趋势,推进草畜平衡,维护草原生态系统可持续发展,已成为学者们研究的热点。研究表明,载畜率居高不下是导致草原退化、生态破坏的最主要原因。为了降低载畜率,实现草原休养生息,我国政府从2011年开始在全国牧区半牧区268个县(旗)开始全面实施草原生态补奖机制,到2015年完成了第一轮草原生态补奖机制工作。本研究利用2010年和2015年开展的700余户牧户调研面板资料,研究揭示草原牧区牧户载畜率分布的趋同特征及影响因素,并探讨草原生态补奖机制实施的效果,将为有效解决牧户超载问题、实现草畜平衡提供重要依据。通过对2009年和2014年不同草原类型区的牧户草场载畜率特征研究发现,牧户草场载畜率普遍呈现随草场面积增大而降低的分布特征,可用对数曲线y=alnX+b模拟,在同一草原类型区内相邻旗(县)间存在趋同现象。对两期牧户面板数据进行对比发现,草原生态补奖政策实施前后,载畜率分布没有发生明显的变化,依然存在趋同现象,且草原生态补奖机制的实施并没有促使牧民降低草场载畜率,甚至还略有升高。通过建立多元回归模型分析发现,牧户的自身特征以及家庭面临的生活支出风险与牧户的载畜率相关。在生态补奖政策实施前,草甸草原牧户的草场面积与载畜率显著负相关(P<0.01),家庭人口(P<0.05)和人均生活支出(P<0.1)与载畜率显著正相关。典型草原、荒漠草原和荒漠区牧户的载畜率只受到草场面积的显著影响(P<0.01)。沙地草原载畜率依然与草场面积负相关,但是与户主的教育程度显著正相关(P<0.01)。补奖政策实施后,草甸草原牧户的载畜率影响因素发生转移,只与草场面积呈显著负相关(P<0.05)。草场面积依然是荒漠草原牧户载畜率的主要影响因素。家庭人口和人均生活支出逐渐成为典型草原和荒漠区牧户载畜率的主导因素。沙地草原载畜率的影响因素有所增加,教育支出上升为影响牧民载畜率的主要因素。总体来说,牧户的草场面积和以支出为主导的生活风险是主导牧户进行生产决策的主要因素。
【Abstract】 In recent years,grassland ecosystem degradation has become the focus of attention in the whole society,and the mechanism of retarding its deterioration and maintain the sustainable development of these natural resources has become a heated topic among scholars.Many studies have shown that the use of high stocking rate is the most important cause of grassland degradation and ecological damage.In order to reduce stocking rate and foster the recuperation of grasslands,the Chinese government began the implementation of grassland ecological compensation mechanism from 2010,the first round of which has been completed by 2015 for 268 counties(qi)in pastoral and semi pastoral areas.In this study,more than 700 household surveyed data in 2010 and 2015 were analyzed to reveal the converging characteristics of the distribution and influencing factors of stocking rate in pastoral areas.Moreover,the effect of implementation of the grassland ecological compensation mechanism was explored to effectively solve the problem of overgrazing caused by herdsmen and provide an important basis for achieving a balance between grassland and livestock.Result showed that stocking rate implemented by herdsmen across the grassland types in 2009 and 2014 generally decreased with increasing grassland area,and the logarithmic curve y=alnX+b was simulated which produced convergence between adjacent counties(Qi)in the same grassland area.The comparison of the panel data of herdsmen showed that the distribution pattern of stocking rate still exhibit convergence phenomenon,before and after the implementation of the policy.This implies that implementation of the grassland ecological compensation policy did not prompt herdsmen to reduce stocking rate,but consequently increased slightly.Multiple regression analysis showed that the characteristics of the herding family and the risk associated with living expenses of the family are related to the stocking rate.Prior to implementation of the ecological compensation policy,the grassland area in meadow steppe was significantly negatively correlated with stocking rate(P<0.01),while family size(P<0.05)and living expenditure per capita(P<0.1)were significantly positively correlated with stocking rate.The stocking rate of the typical steppe,desert steppe and desert area were only affected by the area of grassland(P<0.01).For sandy steppe,stocking rate was negatively correlated with the grassland area,but education degree of the householder was positively correlated(P<0.01)with stocking rate.After the implementation of the subsidy policy,the factors affecting stocking rate on grasslands in meadow steppe were transferred,resulting in negative correlation of stocking rate with grassland area(P<0.05).Grassland area remains a major influencing factor of stocking rate in desert grassland.Household population size and per capita living expenses gradually became the major determinant of stocking rate in typical grassland and desert areas.The factors affecting stocking rate in sandy steppe increased,with increase in education expenditure as the dominant factor.In general,grassland area and risk associated with pastoral expenditures are the main drivers of production decision of the pastoral family.