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基于集水农业理论的干旱半干旱区海绵城市建设路径分析

Path Analysis of Sponge City Construction in Arid and Semi-arid Areas Based on Rainwater Harvesting Agriculture Theory

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【Author in Chinese】 张琦璇

【Supervisor】 张大伟徐辉

【Author's Information】 兰州大学, 生态学, 2019, 硕士

【Subtitle】以兰州市为例

【Abstract in Chinese】 城镇化是衡量一个国家和地区经济社会发展的重要指标,也是促进社会发展、提高人民生活水平的必经之路,经过近50年的城镇化建设,我国目前已有约60%的人口生活在城市中。但是由于生态保护和可持续发展理念的滞后,我国在推进城镇化建设的过程中普遍存在着规划不合理、城市规模盲目扩张等问题,城市发展过程中积累了各种生态环境问题如城市区域水资源缺乏、雨水资源流失、径流污染增加、城市内涝灾害频发等城市水生态问题严重制约着城市区域的健康和可持续发展。海绵城市被视为解决我国当前城市水生态问题的先进理念和有效措施,提倡城市与自然的和睦共存、和谐发展,以低成本的雨洪管理措施恢复城市水生态环境,进一步恢复整个地区和流域的生态系统平衡。我国政府从2013年起开始大力倡导和推进海绵城市建设,掀起了一系列海绵城市建设尝试和研究的热潮,但是大部分研究和实践都集中于我国中东部经济发达、湿润半湿润地区,对干旱半干旱区海绵城市建设的关注度远远不够。全球干旱半干旱区面积约占土地总面积的36%,涉及80多个国家和40%的全球人口。而我国形势更加严峻,干旱半干旱区面积约占国土总面积的50%,涵盖了内蒙古、华北、西北、西南的大片区域,这些区域不仅是我国重要的生态屏障,也是我国实施“一带一路”倡议的核心通道和众多节点城市所在区域,地理位置十分重要。与此同时,在全球气候变化的影响下,全球正面临着干旱区持续和快速扩张,以及气温增高、极端气象事件频发的趋势,而干旱半干旱区由于生态环境脆弱,灾害抵抗力弱,对气候变化和人类活动的响应十分敏感,必将面临更加严重的干旱和气候增温影响。因此,探索如何合理规划建设干旱半干旱区海绵城市,对于生态环境的保护和社会经济的发展都具有十分重大的意义。本研究即以我国干旱半干旱区为研究区域,首先,从干旱半干旱区的城市建设面临的问题和挑战、海绵城市建设的内涵、集水农业和海绵城市建设结合机制和理论支撑的角度,探讨了基于集水农业理论的干旱半干旱区海绵城市建设的理念框架。其次,基于干旱半干旱区海绵城市建设的短期、中期、长期目标,分别从微观海绵单元尺度、中观城市尺度和宏观流域尺度三个层面提出了基于集水农业理论的干旱半干旱区海绵城市建设的方案设计。再次,选取兰州市作为实证分析区域,结合兰州市实际情况提出了兰州市海绵城市建设的设计思路,通过提取兰州市城关区新港城小区为范例小区,从小区和全市建设区域的角度分别进行了集水量预估和城市生态服务价值提升值的预测,对建设方案进行了可行性分析。最后,根据实证研究和海绵城市建设研究现状,提出干旱半干旱区海绵城市建设的对策建议。主要研究结果如下:1、理论层面,干旱半干旱区城市建设要重点针对城市发展所面临的水生态问题,充分借鉴集水农业理论在干旱半干旱区解决水资源时空分布不均匀问题的丰富实践和理论经验,与海绵城市建设理念有机结合,以基本的低影响开发措施和海绵城市因地制宜的原则为支撑,以降水资源的收集、净化、储蓄、利用为主要内容,以改善干旱半干旱区城市水生态问题,构建基于集水农业理论的干旱半干旱区海绵城市建设的框架,从而实现干旱半干旱区打造宜居城市、构建生态流域的目标。2、操作层面,微观尺度的干旱半干旱区海绵城市建设为具体的海绵单元建设,重点结合景观设计方案,增加城市绿化率,尽可能多地收集雨水资源;中观尺度的干旱半干旱区海绵城市建设,落脚点在于土地利用控制性规划和城市设计领域,形成实体的城镇海绵系统;宏观尺度的干旱半干旱区海绵城市建设,重点在着眼于流域的统一规划管理体系建设,构建流域层面的水生态安全格局。3、实证方面,结合兰州市地域狭小、建筑密度高及地理和气候等特点,兰州市海绵单元建设应重点关注绿色屋顶建设,并充分挖掘其他海绵设施的建设潜力。研究显示,以兰州市2017年兰州市建成区面积和37%的建筑密度计算,理想条件下,发展绿色屋顶可以为兰州市增加117.41km~2的城市绿地面积。另外,如果加上配套地面雨水花园、自然绿地和道路系统等,兰州市海绵单元的总面积将达到207.01km~2,对于生态系统服务价值所贡献的增加量约为3.64—3.89亿元,实施改造方案后兰州市的年集水量理想值可达0.86亿m~3,集水潜力略高于兰州市目前年均生态环境用水量。4、建议层面,以问题为导向,提出干旱半干旱区海绵城市建设的相关对策建议:(1)转变城市发展理念,摒弃忽视生态只求发展的城市建设思想,树立城市与自然和谐共处的可持续发展理念;(2)建立更加严格的法律制度体系,为水资源利用、水环境保护和海绵城市建设提供法律保障;(3)加强基础台站建设,推动基础数据透明和公开;(4)科学规划、理性施工,坚持城市建设规划与节水设施和生态环境保护“三同时”,以问题为导向,建设中技术措施应与建设地条件相符合;(5)鼓励公众参与,汲取公众智慧,充分发挥公众监督作用;(6)创新投、融资模式,鼓励社会资本投入到海绵城市建设中来,实现共商共建共享的新局面。

【Abstract】 Urbanization is an important indicator to measure the economic and social development of a country or region,and it is also the only way to promote social development and improve people’s living standards.After nearly 50 years of urbanization construction,about 60%of the population in China now lives in cities.However,due to the lagging of the concept of ecological protection and sustainable development,problems such as unreasonable planning and blindly expanding the scale of cities exist in the process of promoting urbanization in China.Various ecological problems have accumulated in the process of urban development,such as the lack of water resources in urban areas,the loss of rainwater resources,the increase of runoff pollution and the frequent occurrence of urban waterlogging disasters,which seriously restricts the health and sustainable development of urban areas.Sponge City is regarded as an advanced concept and effective measure to solve the current urban water ecological problems in China.It advocates harmonious coexistence and development between city and nature,restores urban water ecological environment with low-cost rainwater and flood management measures,and further restores the ecological system balance of the whole region and river basin.Since 2013,the Chinese government has vigorously advocated and promoted the construction of sponge cities,which set off a series of attempts and research upsurge in the construction of sponge cities.However,most of the research and practice focused on the economically developed,humid and semi-humid areas in the central and eastern part of China,and the attention paid to the construction of sponge cities in arid and semi-arid regions is far from enough.The global arid and semi-arid area accounts for about 36%of the total land area,involving more than 80 countries and 40%of the global population.And China’s situation is even more serious.Arid and semi-arid areas account for 53%of the total land area,covering a large area of Inner Mongolia,North China,northwest and southwest.These regions are not only the important ecological barriers in China,but also are the core corridor of"one belt and one road"initiative in China.And they are also act as the many node cities area,so the geographical position is very important.At the same time,under the influence of global climate change,the world is facing the continuous and rapid expansion in arid areas,and the trend of the higher temperatures,frequent extreme weather events.Due to the fragile ecological environment and weak disaster resistance,arid and semi-arid areas are very sensitive to climate change and human activities,and will certainly face more serious effects of drought and climate warming.Therefore,it is of great significance to explore how to reasonably plan and build sponge cities in arid and semi-arid areas for the protection of ecological environment and the development of social economy.This study takes the arid and semi-arid regions of China as the research area.Firstly,the conceptual framework of sponge city construction in arid and semi-arid regions based on the theory of catchment agriculture is discussed from the perspectives of the problems and challenges faced by urban construction in arid and semi-arid regions,the connotation of sponge city construction,the mechanism of combining catchment agriculture with sponge city construction and the theoretical support.Secondly,based on the short-term,medium-term and long-term objectives of sponge city construction in arid and semi-arid regions,it then puts forward the scheme design of sponge city construction in arid and semi-arid region based on catchment agriculture theory from three levels of micro-sponge unit scale,meso-city scale and macro-watershed scale.Thirdly,this study chooses Lanzhou City as an empirical analysis area,and puts forward the design idea of sponge city construction in Lanzhou City according to the actual situation of Lanzhou City.Taking Xingang City District of Cheng Guan District of Lanzhou City as an example,the catchment volume and the value of urban ecological service promotion were predicted from the perspective of the district and the construction area of the city respectively,and the feasibility of the construction scheme was analyzed.Finally,according to the empirical research and the present situation of sponge city construction,the countermeasures and suggestions of sponge city construction in arid and semi-arid regions are put forward.The main results are as follows:1.On the theoretical level,urban construction in arid and semi-arid areas should focus on water ecology problems,and the concept of sponge city construction in arid and semi-arid regions should fully consider the rich practice and theoretical experience of catchment agriculture theory in solving the problem of uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources in arid and semi-arid regions,organically combining with the concept of sponge city construction.It is supposed to be supported by the basic low-impact development measures and the principle of sponge cities adapting to local conditions,and taking the collection,purification,saving and utilization of precipitation resources as the main contents,in order to improve the urban water ecological problems in arid and semi-arid regions and realize livability in arid and semi-arid regions and accomplish the goal of city and ecological watershed construction.2.At the operational level,the sponge city construction in the micro-scale arid and semi-arid area is taken as the concrete sponge unit construction,and the landscape design scheme is mainly combined to increase the urban greening rate and collect rainwater resources as much as possible;taking the construction of sponge cities in arid and semi-arid regions at meso-scale as a foothold,focusing on land use control planning and urban design,forming a solid urban sponge system;the construction of sponge cities in arid and semi-arid regions on a macro scale focuses on the construction of a unified planning and management system of the river basin and the construction of a water ecological security pattern at the river basin level.3 Empirically,considering the characteristics of Lanzhou city,such as narrow area,high building density,geography and climate,etc.,the sponge unit construction in Lanzhou should focuses on green roof construction,and fully taps the construction potential of other sponge facilities.The study shows that,based on the built-up area of Lanzhou City in 2017and the building density of 37%,under ideal conditions,the development of green roof can increase the urban green space area of Lanzhou City by 117.41 km~2.In addition,the total area of sponge unit in Lanzhou will reach 207.01 km~2,and the contribution to ecosystem service value will increase by about 364-389 million yuan.The ideal annual water harvesting value of Lanzhou will reach 86 million m~3 after the implementation of the renovation scheme,which is basically equivalent to the ecological environment water consumption of Lanzhou.4.On the suggestion level,taking the problem as the guidance,the paper puts forward the relevant countermeasures and suggestions for the construction of sponge cities in arid and semi-arid regions as follows:(1)Change the concept of urban development,abandon the concept of urban construction which destroys the ecology and only seeks development,and establish the concept of sustainable development of harmonious coexistence between cities and nature;(2)Establish and perfect relevant legal system to build sponge cities for water resources utilization,water environment protection and sponge city construction;(3)Insist on the"three simultaneous"of urban construction planning and water-saving facilities and ecological environmental protection,that is,simultaneous design,construction and use,should be problem-oriented,technical measures should be in line with the conditions of the construction site;(4)Strengthen the construction of basic stations,promote transparency and openness of basic data;(5)Encourage public participation,draw wisdom and strengthen supervision;(6)Optimize investment and financing channels and innovate investment and financing modes.

  • 【Contributor】 兰州大学
  • 【Year of Internet Publish】201908
  • 【CLC code】TU992
  • 【Downloads】46
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