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英国生态学马克思主义关于马克思的“自然极限”理论的阐释

British Eco-Marxism Interpreting Marx’s Theory of Natural Limits

【Author in Chinese】 倪瑞华

【Author】 Ni Ruihua(Zhongnan University of Economics and Law)

【Institution】 中南财经政法大学马克思主义学院

【Abstract in Chinese】 在历史上马尔萨斯的人口论最早涉及自然极限问题,在当代经济快速增长和发展可能突破自然极限导致世界的崩溃时,人们把质疑的目光转向了马克思对马尔萨斯的批判,指责马克思为了实现他的解放战略,忽视资源的稀缺性,一味强调经济增长和生产力的发展,因而否认了自然的极限。针对这一指责,戴维.佩珀、瑞尼.格仑德曼、乔纳森.休斯等一批英国生态学马克思主义者作出了积极的回应。首先,英国生态学马克思主义者重新审察马克思对马尔萨斯人口论的批判。认为马克思对马尔萨斯人口论进行的是意识形态批判,揭穿它为资本主义制度辩护的政治目的和反人民的本质。马尔萨斯把人口与生活资料按照两个不同级数增长说成是超越历史的永恒的自然规律,把人口过剩看成是绝对,并把贫困和一切社会矛盾的原因归于这一自然法则。一方面,马克思批判马尔萨斯用自然法则替代社会法则来解释社会问题,把社会问题自然化,实质上是在掩盖资本主义的剥削本质;另一方面,马克思把人口置于特定的社会和历史中加以分析,认为人口规律是社会法则,而不能简单地归于纯粹的自然法则,人口不可能是绝对过剩而只是相对过剩,旨在揭示出穷困和一切社会矛盾的社会原因。因此,马克思批判的是马尔萨斯对自然极限的荒谬解释,而不是否认自然极限。其次,英国生态学马克思主义者从多维的视角解读了马克思的"自然极限"理论。他们认为,马克思是在特定的社会中考察自然极限,自然的边界在哪里是与一定的社会生产关系和人们的活动方式紧密联系的,自然极限具有社会性;马克思在历史的视域中考察自然极限,指出没有固定不变的极限,极限本身是相对的和变化的,自然极限具有相对性;马克思从科学技术发展的视角来考量自然极限,指出科学技术的发展在确定自然极限边界中具有重要的作用,科学技术的发展总是把自然极限大大地往后推移了。总之,马克思从自然、社会、历史和技术多维度来综合理解自然极限。再次,英国生态学马克思主义者阐述了马克思的解放战略与自然极限的关系。指出,马克思主义所追求的解放首先是生产力的解放,因为高度发展的生产力是解放的物质基础;马克思主义的解放理论并没有停留在物质解放的层面,而是进一步上升到精神解放的层面,并把生产力的解放看作是各种精神丰富性的前提条件;马克思主义追求的解放不是唯心论的绝对的自由意志,它要受到物质的历史环境的限制;解放了的共产主义社会像关怀人一样去关怀自然生态,体现出一种生态的仁爱性。在实现了人类解放的未来的共产主义社会,必定也是一个资源丰富、自然生产力巨大、自然环境优美的社会,生态的关怀就意味着人的解放以及自然的解放都是在自然极限之内实现的,决不可能在自然极限之外去实现。

【Abstract】 Malthusian view of population involved natural limits at the earliest in history.When rapid economic growth and development will break through natural limits probably and result in world collapse in modern time,some persons turn their question vision to Marx’s critiques of Malthus.They blame Marx denied naturallimits when he emphasized economy growth and development of productive power for his emancipation project.British eco-Marxists such as David pepper,Reiner Grundmann and Jonathan Hughes refute the above-mentioned blames of Marx and present their viewpoints.Firstly,British eco-Marxist reassesses Marx’s critiques of Malthusianism.They point out Marx’s critiques were ideological critiques so as to uncover the political purposes of Malthusianism which protected capitalism and its essence against people.On the one hand,Marx criticized that Malthus thought the law of population as an un-historical law and he explained social issues with natural law not with social law.In fact,Malthus naturalized social issues so as to cover the exploitation essence of capitalism.On the other hand,Marx analyzed population in specific social and historical frame.The law of population was social law and overpopulation was relative surplus not absolute surplus.Therefore,Marx was against Malthusian absurd explanation of natural limits rather than denied natural limits.Secondly,British eco-Marxist interprets Marx’s "natural limits" thought from many-dimensions.Marx studied natural limits from social dimension,where the boundary of nature is tightly relates to specific social productive relationship and model of actions,natural limits have sociality;Marx inspected natural limits from historical dimension,natural limits is not absolute and have relativity;Marx researched natural limits from technological dimension,the boundary of natural limits are delayed greatly by the development of technology.In conclusion,Marx considered natural limits synthetically from natural,social,historical and technological dimensions.Thirdly,British eco-Marxist expounds the relationship between Marx’s emancipation project and natural limits.Marxism seeks for emancipation which liberates productive power at first because emancipation is based on high degree development of productive power;Marxist emancipation includes material and spiritual liberation;Marxism seeks for emancipation which is not idealist absolute freedom of will,emancipation is restricted by society and history;communist society will show loving care for nature as human and have natural kindheartedness.Ecological caring means that the liberation of human and nature are realized within natural limits.

  • 【Conference Name】“马克思主义与生态文明”研讨会
  • 【Time】2010-11-18
  • 【Place】中国上海
  • 【CLC code】F205
  • 【Conference Sponsors】复旦大学国外马克思主义与国外思潮研究国家创新基地(The National Research Base for World Marxism and Thought Trends at Fudan University)、复旦大学当代国外马克思主义研究中心(The Center for Contemporary Marxism Abroad, Fudan University)、复旦大学哲学学院(School of Philosophy,Fudan University)
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