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栽培方式与免耕对杂交稻Ⅱ优498灌浆期根系衰老和籽粒灌浆的影响

Influence of Cultivation Methods and No-Tillage on Root Senescence at Filling Stage and Grain-Filling Properties of Eryou 498

【Author in Chinese】 杨志远孙永健徐徽秦俭贾现文马均

【Author】 YANG Zhi-yuan1,2,SUN Yong-jian1,2,XU Hui1,2,QIN Jian1,JIA Xian-wen1,MA Jun1,2(1Rice Research Institute of Sichuan Agricultural University,Wenjiang 611130,Sichuan;2Sichuan Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology,Ecology,and Cultivation in Southwest,Ministry of Agriculture,Wenjiang 611130,Sichuan)

【Institution】 四川农业大学水稻研究所四川农业大学/农业部西南作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室

【Abstract in Chinese】 【目的】探明不同栽培方式水稻在翻免耕条件下根系衰老状况以及籽粒灌浆特性。【方法】以重穗型杂交稻Ⅱ优498为试验材料,测量根系伤流量并用原状土柱法挖根考察根干重,用Richard方程拟合宽窄行栽培、三角形强化栽培、宽行窄株栽培以及抛秧栽培在翻耕和免耕条件下的籽粒灌浆过程并进行比较研究。【结果】与翻耕稻相比,免耕稻根量较小,但灌浆前、中期根系活力要高于前者,灌浆后期根系活力急剧降低,维持根系功能的能力较差,产量较低。三角形强化栽培根系功能较其余栽培方式有显著优势,但其对免耕适应性较差,而宽窄行栽培和抛秧栽培与免耕互作可以促进二者在免耕条件下的根系活力。栽培方式与免耕对籽粒灌浆过程产生较大影响,甚至改变灌浆类型。宽窄行栽培、宽行窄株栽培以及抛秧栽培在免耕条件下为同步灌浆型,而在翻耕条件下则为异步灌浆型,三角形强化栽培灌浆类型则相反。总体而言,籽粒中期灌浆速度远大于前期和后期,虽然灌浆持续时间较短,但仍然对籽粒灌浆做出主要贡献。【结论】栽培方式和免耕对杂交稻Ⅱ优498根系衰老和籽粒灌浆过程产生较大影响,从根系角度看,宽窄行栽培和抛秧栽培更适合免耕条件,而三角形强化栽培在翻耕条件下更有利于其优势的发挥。由于四川盆地自然条件因素限制,Ⅱ优498弱势粒并未充分灌浆,尤其是免耕抛秧栽培以及翻耕三角形强化栽培。

【Abstract】 【Objective】In this study,dry weight and bleeding sap of root at grain-filling stage and grain-filling properties of superior and inferior grains were studied to reveal some mark effects of different cultivation methods and no-tillage(NT) on root senescence and grain-filling of Eryou 498.【Method】 Roots were obtained from paddy field with undistributed soil column,and grain-filling processes of wide and narrow row cultivation(WNR),triangle-planted system of rice intensification(TSRI),wide row and narrow space cultivation(WRNS) and seedling-throwing cultivation(ST) under NT and plow-tillage(PT) were fitted with Richard equation.【Result】Compared with PT rice,dry weight of root of NT rice was smaller,but its root activity at early and middle grain-filling stages was larger than that of ZT rice,however,root activity of ZT rice at late grain-filling stage was much smaller because of the sharp drop which meant a bad ability in keeping root function,besides,grain yield of ZT rice was smaller than that of PT rice,too.TSRI with the outstanding root function of the four cultivation methods could not adjust to the NT conditions,however,WNR and ST adapted themselves to NT conditions greatly because of the interaction effects between cultivation methods and NT prompted root activity enormously.Cultivation measures not only impacted grain-filling processes greatly but also changed the grain-filling mode.WNR,WRNS and ST were of synchronous grain-filling mode under NT and asynchronous grain-filling mode under PT,however,TSRI was just the opposite of them under different tillage modes.Overall,grain-filling rate at middle grain-filling stage was larger than that at earty and late grain-filling stages,although middle grain-filling period was the shortest of the three,it still made a major contribution to grain-filling.【Conclusion】Cultivation methods and NT had a great influence on root senescence and grain-filling of Eryou 498.Based on root function,WNR and ST were more suitable for NT,however,TSRI showed better under PT.Because of the negative influence of natural environment of Sichuan basin,grain-filling of inferior grains of Eryou 498 was insufficient,so there was still a great yield potential if natural environment was proper,especially for ST under NT and TSRI under PT.

【Fund】 国家“十二五”科技支撑计划项目(2011BAD16B05,2012BAD04B13,2013BAD07B13);国家自然科学基金(31101117);农业部作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室开放课题;四川省教育厅资助科研项目(10ZA047);四川省育种攻关专项(2011NZ0098-15)
  • 【Source】 中国农业科学 ,Scientia Agricultura Sinica , Editorial E-mail ,2013(07)
  • 【CLC code】S511
  • 【Downloads】289
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