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Study on Responses of Oat to Water Stress and Factors Limiting Dry-land Naked Oat YieldCN

李彦霞

河北农业大学

Abstract:In order to study the effects of water stress on the growth and yield of different drought-resistant oat varieties and the yield difference of naked oats among different land types,and to clarify the physiological response mechanism of different oat varieties on water stress and the limiting factors of the yield difference of different land types,two years pot and dry pood experiment was conducted in Bashang Base of Zhangjiakou Academy of Agricultural Sciences from 2019 to 2020,and the farmers’ production survey was conducted in the surrounding main oat producing areas.Six oat varieties including skin oats(Avena sativa L)(Zhangyan 1、Zhangyan 3、Zhangyan 4)、Naked oats(Avena nuda L)(Zhangyou 7、Zhangyou 14 and 0905-12-14)were used as experimental materials in the dry pond experiment,two treatments of adequate water supply and water stress were set up,the indexes of photosynthesis、fluorescence and yield of oat varieties were respectively measured at heading and flowering stages,the drought resistance of oat was evaluated by drought resistance index and drought resistance membership function method,and the correlation between different physiological indexes and drought resistance were analyzed.The pot experiment used 0905-12-14 as the test material,and set up four treatments of normal water supply(CK)、mild drought(LS)、moderate drought(MS)、severe drought(SS),the relative water content of soil was 70-80%,60-70%、50-60%and 35-45%of the maximum field capacity,the effects of water stress on morphology、photosynthetic、physiological and yield indexes were analyzed at jointing and heading stages;The factors restricting naked oat yield were systematically analyzed from the technical and economic perspectives,the differences of farmers under different yield levels were compared and analyzed,the factors affecting oat yield in dry land were explored.The results show that:The order of drought resistance sequence of oat varieties evaluated by drought resistance index and drought resistance membership function is basically the same,it is concluded that 0905-12-14 was strong drought-resistant variety,Zhangyou 14 was drought-resistant variety,Zhangyan 1 and Zhangyan 4 were moderately resistant varieties,Zhangyan 3 and Zhangyou 7 were weakly resistant varieties,and the correlation between yield characters and photosynthetic parameters was strong under water stress at heading and flowering stages,the correlation between photosynthetic rate and drought resistance was also strong.The photosynthetic index、drought resistance coefficient、drought resistance index and sensitivity index could be used as the preliminary identification index of drought resistance in oats.Water stress affected the growth and development of oat,resulted in plant height and leaf area of oats compared with normal water supply were significantly decreased.Under severe water stress,the plant height and leaf area respectively decreased by 29%、47%at jointing stage,and that decreased by 26%、40%at heading stage.Water stress reduced the photosynthetic indexes of oat,resulted in the intercellular CO2 concentration、transpiration rate、stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate were decreased.However,the photosynthetic performance of different varieties and different growth stages had different responses and adaptability to water stress.Under severe water stress,the intercellular CO2 concentration、transpiration rate、stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate of 0905-12-14 varieties compared with normal water supply were decreased by 24%、30%、55%、34%at jointing stage,and that decreased by 11%、29%、69%、59%at heading stage;The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of different varieties have different responses to water stress.Water stress caused Fo increased and thylakoid damaged,Fm、Fv、Fv/Fm、Fv/Fo were decreased trend,the photosynthetic potential decreased,the primary reaction was inhibited,the potential activity of PS Ⅱ was damaged.Under severe water stress,Fo increased by 2%,Fm、Fv、Fv/Fm、Fv/Fo decreased by 15%、17%、9%、27%at jointing stage,and that Fo increased by 32%,Fm、Fv、Fv/Fm、Fv/Fo decreased by 3%、15%、12%、35%at heading stage;Water stress caused the leaves damaged,maked the leaves senescence accelerated,and reduced the chlorophyll content.Under severe stress,the chlorophyll content decreased by 35%at jointing stage and that decreased by 19%at heading stage.Water stress has a certain impact on the physiological indicators of oats,resulted in significantly increased in malondialdehyde、soluble protein、soluble sugar and proline content compared with normal water supply.Under severe water stress,the contents of malondialdehyde、soluble protein、soluble sugar and proline increased by 19%、61%、92%、54%at jointing stage and that increased by 35%、33%、78%、79%at heading stage.Water stress has a certain effect on the yield of oats,resulted in plant height、spike length、number of spikes、spike grain weight、spike number、spike grain number、1000 grain weight and yield were decreased.Under severe water stress,spike number、spike grain number、1000 grain weight and yield decreased by 37%、11%、7%、47%at jointing stage and that decreased by 50%、51%、7%、77%at heading stage.The yield difference between plots of different land types were obvious.On the beach land.the average yield of farmers was 2776.7 kg/hm2,the yield difference based on high-yield farmers、high-yield record、experimental yield was was 490.2 kg/hm2、2848.3 kg/hm2、1498.3 kg/hm2 and the yield of farmers reached 84%、53%、65%;On the slope land,the average yield of farmers was 2134.5 kg/hm2,the yield difference based on high-yield farmers、high-yield record、experimental yield was 916.4 kg/hm2、2493.1 kg/hm2、1615.6 kg/hm2,and the yield of farmers reached 70%、47%、57%of the high-yield farmers、high yield record、experimental yield.There is a large potential for improvement in farmers’ yield.The reasons for this yield gap include the technical factors such as low seeding rate and low fertilizer application;social factors such as he input cost of farmers is large,but the economic benefit is low.From the above,water stress had certain effects on oat morphology,photosynthesis,physiology and yield,but different varieties have different responses to water stress,the varieties with strong drought resistance had strong adaptability to drought stress;There is a large potential to increase the yield between different land types in the investigated area.
  • Series:

    (D) Agriculture

  • Subject:

    Crop

  • DOI:

    10.27109/d.cnki.ghbnu.2021.000094

  • Classification Code:

    S512.6

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