Science and Technology in China

Science and technology are the bedrock upon which a country relies for its strength, enterprises for success, and people for a better life. In today’s era, science and technology play an increasingly important role in achieving national competitiveness at the global level. In this book, we bring together excellent articles about China’s scientific and technological achievements, covering energy, space, ecology and environment, agriculture, public health, poverty alleviation, marine and other fields.

Strategy & Policy Decision Research

Study on Indicator System of World Modernization

  • Modernization is not only a world phenomenon, but also a civilization progress and a development goal. Modernization indicators could reflect the level, characteristics, and states of modernization, which can be organized as the modernization indicator system with systematic structure according to the modernization principles. On the basis of a brief review of the research on modernization indicators since the 1950s, this paper mainly focuses on the establishment of the indicator system of world modernization in the light of the second modernization theory and modernization science, aiming to identify the level, characteristics, and states of national modernization from a global perspective. And the world-renowned indicator systems, such as Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Country Profiles, World Development Indicators of World Bank, and Indicators of World Modernization Outline have been referred as indicator sources. The Indicator System of World Modernization includes 100 modernization indicators, covering 6 fields, 15 themes, 35 sub-themes, and 5 dimensions of world modernization (Behaviors, Structures, Institutions, Concepts, and Side effects). Among them, there are 50 indicators applied for reflecting the level of modernization, 28 for characteristics, and 22 for states. The Indicator System of World Modernization could provide scientific reference for exploring and establishing an indicator system of China modernization with Chinese characteristics.

    HE Chuanqi; LIU Lei; ZHAO Xijun

Path Choice of Technological Innovation under Internal Circulation Dominated Economy

  • “A new development pattern with domestic market as the mainstay and dual circulation of domestic and foreign markets boosting each other” is a major decision made by the Central Government of China in response to the changes in international situations. Based on this decision, the paths of technological innovation and industrial development in China should be adjusted accordingly.

    LI Guojie

Building Scientific and Technological Innovation System Adaptive to Economic and Social Development Trend

  • The S&T has shown an accelerated and superimposed development trend in the 21st century. As the coming of new round of technological changes and the industrial revolution, the world has entered a new era of development with the dominant features of innovation. The global innovation patterns of S&T fields and countries change sharply under the strong driving force of the new demand of global economy. Based on the brief summary of global economic and social development trends, this study discusses the economic and social development trends of China including China’s total economic scale, population and aging, digital China and smart society, green and safe agriculture, natural resources and energy, ecological environment, S&T and industry revolution and external competition challenges. The demand for S&T innovations is analyzed and discussed and nine main S&T innovation systems that adapt to the general trend of economic and social development and support the construction of a S&T power are put forward. The nine S&T innovation systems involve basic research, key core technologies, advanced information networks for the Digital China and the smart society, clean and renewable advanced energy, green and intelligent manufacturing, modern green, sustainable and efficient agriculture, medical and health care of the Healthy China, ecology and environment of human–land harmonious coexistence of the Beautiful China, and deep space and deep sea exploration.

    ZHANG Zhiqiang; CHEN Yunwei

Building Ten Types of New Infrastructure System for a Great Modern Country

  • From the perspective of the human historical development process, this study analyzes the connotation evolution and system composition of infrastructure. Measured by the intergenerational leap in infrastructure, this study discusses the connotation and characteristics of new infrastructure in the era of knowledge and intelligent society. From the two dimensions of form and content, the study also puts forward that the new infrastructure system includes technology and digital infrastructure, infrastructure upgrading, infrastructure digitalization, national security, and governance infrastructure in the next 30 years. Considering the eight “economic and social foundation and strategic systems” and two basic systems of “scientific and technological innovation and institutional innovation,” this study discusses the composition and structure of ten types of new infrastructure system for a great modern country by 2050. Finally, combined with the current situation, the study puts forward some policy suggestions to promote the construction of new infrastructure system for a great modern country from the three aspects of strategic layout, investment plan, and project reserve.

    PAN Jiaofeng; WAN Jinbo


China’s Energy and Important Mineral Resources Demand Perspective

  • This paper summarizes the consumption history of energy and important mineral resources in China in the past 70 years, expounds the mechanism of energy and important mineral resources consumption supporting economic and social development and the theory of “limit of growth,” and forecasts China’s demand for energy and important mineral resources in the next 15 years. In this paper, it points out that the consumption of mineral resources will reach the peak around 2025; the primary energy consumption will reach turning point around 2030; the consumption of critical mineral resources will enter a period of rapid growth. Before 2035, China’s status and situation as the world’s largest consumer, producer, and trade country of energy and important mineral resources will not be able to change, and it is necessary to actively respond to various possible challenges.

    WANG Anjian; GAO Xinrui

Thinking on General Trends of Energy Development and Directions of Energy Science and Technology

  • The development of energy science and technology has profound impacts on the future energy pattern, and the outlook of energy development is of great significance to national policy-making and corporate strategic planning. Based on the analysis of the current situation and development trend of energy sector, this study summarizes the five characteristics of energy transformation: diversification, decarbonization, decentralization, digitalization, and globalization, and points out three new features in respect of the trade war between China and the US, low oil price, and application of artificial intelligence technology that emerged since 2016. A few thoughts concerning low-cost technology, information technology, and disruptive technology are presented for analyzing the development trend of science and technology in energy. We hope to provide reference for China’s active response to energy transformation and the formulation of development strategy of energy science and technology.

    JIN Zhijun; BAI Zhenrui; YANG Lei


Adaptative Strategy of Powerful Country of Science and Technology for Modernization of China’s Space Governance

  • As an important field in the construction of ecological civilization, spatial governance is a weak link in China’s governance system. In the past 40 years of rapid economic development, unbalanced regional development, disharmony between nature and society, and disordered spatial structure have emerged. In the support of space governance, science and technology have problems such as the division of natural sciences and social sciences, the imperfect data co-construction and sharing mechanism, and the disconnection of scientific research and decision-making management, which seriously hinders the modernization of governance systems. The formation of an adapting strategy for the modernization of China’s space governance is of great significance for China to realize the transition from a moderately prosperous society to a modern society, and to improve the global governance system. Considering the complexity of space governance objects, the scientization of government decision-making and management, and the general trend of science and technology serving social development, this study proposes a new framework of science and technology innovation oriented to space governance, which is dominated by theoretical innovation, data construction, and knowledge application. Considering the whole process and key demands of national land space planning, this study systematically discusses the two major issues of developing a unified geographic theory system and data foundation from the aspects of planning goal, analytical methods, layout plans, control system optimization, safeguard measures and dynamic management. The main points of the theory system include the comprehensive equilibrium theory of space, the coupling mechanism of natural and social systems, the evolution law of regional function-spatial structure, the spatial interaction relationship, the spatial governance mechanism, and the reverse decoupling principle of geographical process-geographical pattern.

    FAN Jie

Methodology and Role of “Double Evaluation” in Optimization of Spatial Development Pattern

  • “Double evaluation,” the abbreviation of the evaluation of resource and environmental carrying capacity and territorial development suitability, is the important basis and prerequisite for the implementation of spatial planning. This study systematically expounded the scientific concept, study framework, and research process of “double evaluation,” and discussed the core role in promoting high-quality spatial development. This article firstly depicts the main development of “double evaluation” in MFOZ researches, including the proposal and improvement of the theoretical concept, the establishment of evaluation framework, and the application in MFOZ planning. Then, we analyze the main function of “double evaluation” and its irreplaceable fundamental role in optimizing spatial development pattern. As an effective means of cognizing land surface, “double evaluation” could provide a comprehensive and scientific understanding of regional background conditions as well as recognizing the prominent problems and major contradictions in spatial development. On this basis, the “double evaluation” would support basic materials for spatial planning compilation and guiding spatial planning implications by coupling various types of planning in different levels and supervising the implementation of planning. The limitations and proposals of the “double evaluation” are discussed to properly use it in actual work, which emphasizes that the adjustment of technical methods to local conditions and other basic work should also be taken into account. Meanwhile, we discussed the main features and problems of “Guidelines for the Evaluation of Resource and Environmental Carrying Capacity and Territorial Development Suitability (Trial),” which was recently released by the Ministry of Natural Resources. Lastly, suggestions are made on the direction of improving and deepening the method and application of “double evaluation” in the optimization of spatial development pattern.

    ZHOU Daojing; XU Yong; WANG Yafei; ZHOU Kan; LIU Baoyin; LI Jiuyi; FAN Jie

High-quality Development of National Territory Space Governance and Regional Economic Layout During 14th Five-Year Plan in China

  • During the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, modernization of space governance and optimization of the regional economic layout are the important parts of planning and development. Since the reform and opening-up, China’s regional economic layout has adopted the guiding ideology of “some regions getting rich first,” which has rapidly driven the overall improvement of national strength, but the development gap between regions has continued to widen. The open economy and the non-state-owned economy are developing rapidly, but there are shortcomings in the security and advancement of the economic system, and the reform of the state-owned economy is still insufficient. China has made remarkable progress in space governance, but in terms of legalization and scientization, learning-oriented government, and democratic and systematic governance, there is a big gap with modernization requirements. During the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, the key points of space governance modernization include: improving the space governance model in which the government, the market, the social organizations, and the public participate together; improving a regional policy system that puts equal emphasis on fairness and benefits, government regulation, and market optimization allocation, issues and goals, and constraints and incentives; and developing a new mechanism for regional coordination that meets the requirements of high-quality development. The major measures of the regional economic layout are continuously enhancing the energy levels of urban agglomerations, metropolitan areas, and regional central cities, and practicing the new model of achieving balanced and coordinated regional development in the process of population economic agglomeration. It should take the opportunity of restructuring China’s relatively complete industrial system as an opportunity to create a new pattern in the distribution of major productive forces, and launch the great project of high-quality development in northwest China to cultivate the new driving force of development and prosperity in relatively poor areas.

    FAN Jie

Spatial Optimization Strategies of Population Function in China’s World-class Urban Agglomerations During 14th Five-Year Plan Period

  • Urban agglomerations, including Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta regions, are the large clusters both from population and economic perspectives and have the most active vitality of innovation. If world-class urban agglomerations are to be built, population function regulation should highlight the roles of the carrying capacity of resources and the environment, allocation of public service resources, and the challenges of global competitions in the fields of economy and technology. We firstly review the classic theories. Then the distinct characters of population development in China’s urban agglomerations are figured out. Accordingly, the basic laws of population function regulation in urban agglomerations are put forward. In addition, the differentiated strategies are introduced to optimize the population functions in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta regions. Our policy implications aim to promote the evolution of urban agglomerations with a more advanced and healthier process, especially during the 14th Five-Year Plan period.

    YANG Yu; QI Wei; MA Li; LIU Yi

Policies on categorized governance of China’s urban agglomerations in 14th Five-Year Plan

  • From the 14th Five-Year Plan stage to 2035, urban agglomerations will remain the main form of China’s urbanization. At present, the development of China’s urban agglomerations has been diversified, the development pattern of their regions is increasingly differentiated, the strategic objectives of serving the protection of land and space development are diversified, and modern governance methods require precision. Therefore, it is necessary to classify and guide the development of urban agglomerations. Aiming at the problems that the classification of urban agglomerations by comprehensive policy in China is not accurate and characteristic enough, this study proposes the “four specials + comprehensive” policy. Special policy guidelines are provided for the development of urban agglomerations based on the feature of scale, development mode, spatial organization, and resource and environmental carrying capacity, and comprehensive policy guidelines are provided for general questions. It is recommended that future urban agglomerations be a hierarchy in China’s national spatial planning system, and each urban agglomeration should formulate a plan to determine its own policy package. In this study, three dimensions are proposed based on the national spatial development and protection strategic pattern, the national major regional strategic pattern, and the development law of the urban agglomeration. Three key points are put forward to promote the integration of urban agglomerations and their expansion and improvement, and give play to their regional driving force. The policy framework of the four policy tools of “managing managers,” “managing resources and environment,” “managing production factors,” and “managing business and living environment” is also proposed. At the special level, the types of urban agglomerations and precise policies are organized based on the scale, development model, spatial organization, and resource and environmental carrying capacity. At the comprehensive level, the main types and policy recommendations are proposed to guide the high-quality development of urban agglomerations in China.

    GUO Rui; SUN Yong; FAN Jie

Ecology and Environment

China’s Combating Desertification: National Solutions and Global Paradigm

  • Desertification, since initial recognition in 1927 and common definition in 1992, through its vicissitudes, is still one of the serious global environmental issues facing the world and exists as the bottleneck of development. Desertification threatens terrestrial ecological security and limits the sustainability of socio-economic development. In consideration of the impacts of desertification, an “Earth Cancer” and a persistent disease, the authors contribute four prescriptions of “good medicines” for the global initiatives to combat desertification, on the basic framework of Chinese strategies and experiences of “four horizontal beams and eight pillars,” in line with the 15.3 goal of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); namely, development of Protocol of United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and unification of Weights and Measures (benchmarks and indicators) of the implementation and compliance of the UNCCD; setting up of global observation network to monitor the area change of dryland change; compilation of global natural desert (heritage) directory to leave behind landscape of aboriginal sand sea for future generations; initiation of “global governance action to combat desertification” to strive for achieving the target of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) at 2030.

    LU Qi; LEI Jiaqiang; LI Xiaosong; YANG Youlin; WANG Feng

Ecological Protection and High-quality Development in the Yellow River Basin: Framework, Path, and Countermeasure

  • This paper summarizes the characteristics of natural ecological conditions, the current situation of economic and social development, and existing problems and development opportunities of the Yellow River Basin. The overall framework of the national strategy for ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin has been set up according to the three logical progressive links of basement-ecological priority, carrying capacity-development constraint, and driving force-internal and external relevancy. It has formed the academic thinking of delimiting ecological, agricultural, and urban functional areas through the evaluation of the suitability of human activities for land and space development, evaluating and calculating the resource and environment carrying capacity of the three functional areas, and then formulating high-quality development strategies for different functional areas according to the carrying capacity. The ecological restoration and protection strategies such as ecology-migration-urbanization construction project, agricultural planting structure adjustment, dry farming basic farmland construction, and classification and batch solution to the historical problems of mined out areas of energy and mineral resources are put forward. The proposed high-quality development measures mainly include expanding the development scale of renewable energy such as solar energy, wind energy, and hydropower, developing characteristic bio-medicine and healthy food industries, developing new strategic industries such as electromechanical device, electronic information, and artificial intelligence with the help of state-owned enterprises’ innovation potential, innovating the mechanism of industrialization transformation of scientific and technological achievements and the system of value distribution of resource advantages, improving the modern management system of spatial fine governance, regional differential development, and opening up.

    XU Yong; WANG Chuansheng

Foundation and Strategy of Well-Coordinated Environmental Conservation and Avoiding Excessive Development in the Yangtze River Economic Belt

  • The Yangtze River Economic Belt is a major regional development strategy of China to form the backbone axis of the national “one body and two wings” development and opening-up pattern. This paper systematically analyzed ecological status and status of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, such as ecosystem service value, ecological location, ecological types, ecological geographic pattern, natural conditions and ecological disasters of the Yangtze River. Then the major ecological and environmental issues were summarized, including serious water and air pollution, dramatic degradation of main tributaries of the Yangtze River and lakes, the increasing cumulative impacts of major projects on ecology and environment, and the unharmonious relationship between rivers and lakes. Finally, four protection strategies were proposed to ensure the well-coordinated environmental conservation and avoid excessive development in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, including implementing water quality goals management by stressing water eco-environmental protection with the top priority; forming a land and space development pattern dominated by intensive, concentrated spatial development and natural and open ecological space; continuing to implement the green ecological protection project of the Yangtze River Economic Belt; integrating departments and localities to realize comprehensive watershed management.

    YANG Guishan; XU Xibao

Assessment of Ecosystem Services and Ecological Regionalization of Grasslands Support Establishment of Ecological Security Barriers in Northern China

  • Grassland ecosystems of Northern China, the headwaters region and water resource conservation areas for the Yellow River, the Yangzi River, the Lancang River, and the Luanhe River, are important ecological security barriers in China. They play extremely important roles in maintaining multiple ecosystem functions and services and sustaining multinational cultural diversity. However, the grassland ecosystems of Northern China have experienced widespread deterioration in functions and services since the last several decades due to the overexploitation of production functions at the cost of their ecological functions. Therefore, assessment of ecosystem services and ecological regionalization of grasslands in Northern China are needed for optimizing their production functions and ecological functions, establishing ecological security barriers, and achieving ecological civilization. Based on the spatial patterns of key ecosystem services and environmental conditions, we propose seven ecoregions and twenty-five sub-ecoregions across grassland ecosystems in Northern China. The ecological regionalization of grasslands can be used to guide sustainable grassland management, restoration of degraded grasslands, and biodiversity conservation in Northern China.

    BAI Yongfei; ZHAO Yujin; WANG Yang; ZHOU Kailing

Perspective and Prospects on Applying Artificial Intelligence to Address Water and Environmental Challenges of 21st Century

  • One of the most pervasive challenges affecting human and planetary well-being is inadequate access to clean water and sanitation. Problems with water are expected to become worse in the coming decades, with water scarcity occurring globally, in the face of ever-growing populations, intensive human activities, and climatic variation. Addressing the aforementioned water security has been achieved consensus and included into the sustainable development goals (SDGs) set by the United Nations’ Agenda 2030. Despite these ample opportunities, it remains challenging to create reliable, sustainable, and affordable solutions to provide universal access to clean water and sanitation. In this context, the emerging artificial intelligence (AI) technology can be an attractive solution to help with this challenge. We summarized the core of the SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation) and the problems encountered during the progress to date. Building upon this, we conducted a literature review and provided a state-of-the-art analysis of leveraging AI to help achieve SDG 6 alongside the resultant impacts. Afterwards, we highlighted the key issues necessary to be tackled in the coming years if AI is expected to be well applied with its maximum benefits. Plus, we put forward the prospects of future efforts on this revolution.

    WANG Xu; WANG Zhaoyue; PAN Yirong; LUO Yuli; LIU Junxin; YANG Min

Basic Theory and Analytical Methodology for Identification of Novel Environmental Organic Pollutants

  • Since the 20th century, the health hazards caused by chemical pollutants have become increasingly prominent. Tens of thousands of high-throughput chemicals have entered the environment along with the massive production and use, raising emerging scientific issues in environmental science-related fields. In this article, background and scientific significance of establishing the research direction on identification of novel organic pollutants are introduced. Basic principles of discriminating molecular structures and environmental behaviors of pollutant candidates with regard to the characteristics of persistent organic pollutants are discussed. Technical strategy and advantages of the established analytical frameworks, including quantitative structure–property relationship model prediction, suspect/non-targeted analysis, and effect-directed analysis, are further described. In-depth exploration on occurrence, behaviors, and effects of novel organic pollutants will play a crucial supportive role in leading the direction of discipline development, improving chemical risk assessment criteria, and revealing the toxicity and hazard mechanisms of environmental pollutants.

    RUAN Ting; JIANG Guibin


China’s Cultivated Land Requisition-Compensation Balance Policy Implementation Dilemma and Direction of Scientific and Technological Innovation

  • The cultivated land requisition-compensation balance policy, which is a remedial measure for the expansion of cultivated land occupied by industrialization and urbanization, is an important part of the cultivated land protection system in China. At present, the cultivated land requisition-compensation balance is confronted with the dilemma of the exhaustion of cultivated land reserve resources, the high demand for cultivated land occupied by construction land and ecological land. The alienated behaviors of local government, such as supplementing cultivated land with insufficient quantity and poor quality, have threatened the national food security and ecological security. Under the background of cultivated land protection system transformation, it is necessary to deeply understand the long-term, extreme and complex nature of the contradiction between people and land in China. It is necessary to clarify the irreplaceable role of land balance policy in protecting land resources, optimizing land space, and promoting balanced development between urban and rural areas. We propose that the key solution is to use scientific and technological innovation to systematically recognize arable land and improve the technical support of management. We suggest to (1) accelerate the formation of a new balance system with cultivated land quality and production capacity as the core, (2) use differential method to manage the balance of cultivated land, (3) research and develop regional engineering technology system of land ecological improvement, and (4) improve the monitoring and supervision capacity of key elements of cultivated land resources. In conclusion, China should carry out science and technology projects for national cultivated land resources security as soon as possible. That will comprehensively improve the scientific decision-making and intelligent management level of China’s cultivated land protection supervision, and support the cultivated land protection in the comprehensive direction of quantity, quality, and ecology.

    TANG Huaizhi; SANG Lingling; YUN Wenju

Scientific and Technological Innovation Leads High-quality Development of Agriculture in the Yellow River Delta

  • The Yellow River is the main birthplace of Chinese civilization and the mother river of the Chinese nation. On September 18, 2019, President Xi Jinping presided over a symposium on ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin in Zhengzhou and delivered an important speech, elaborating a major strategic deployment to strengthen ecological protection and promote high-quality development. The lower-reaches of the Yellow River Basin have sound conditions for agricultural development, but the high-quality agricultural development in the Yellow River Delta still faces many challenges. Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) has a solid research foundation in the Yellow River Delta. It has proactively deployed research bases and started numbers of research projects which have achieved significant research results. Based on long-term research, and around the strategic goals of ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Delta, a method for further transforming development thinking was put forward through effective combination of ecological principles and high-tech, adaptive, efficient, and refined development of saline-alkali land, and modern industrial development, to explore a new pattern of efficient, high-quality, and high-value development of saline-alkali land agriculture in the Yellow River Delta. By exploring new mechanisms for agricultural scientific and technological innovation and activating scientific and technological innovation capabilities and service capabilities, we will develop a batch of key technologies for high-quality agricultural development in the Yellow River Delta, therefore proposing a “CAS’s Solution” and establishing a “CAS’s Model.”

    BAI Chunli

New Approach of High-quality Agricultural Development in the Yellow River Delta

  • The Yellow River Delta is a young delta, a new land, and a young ecosystem in the world. Its ecological environment is fragile, and the interaction among the river, the sea, and the land forms a unique geographical environment. The salinization of land and the wide distribution of saline-alkali land are two of the main features of the region, and agriculture is one of the leading industries in the region. Agricultural development is related to the efficient use and rational distribution of water resources, the protection of the estuary wetland and the ecological environment, and the efficient development and safety of land resources in this region. It is also about the overall development of land and sea, as well as the revitalization of the countryside. Therefore, the high-quality development of saline agriculture is an important part of sustainable development of the region, while the development of high-quality agriculture on saline-alkali land is an important challenge. Based on the major strategic needs of the country, the current situation, and major problems of the development of the Yellow River Delta, this study puts forward a new model of efficient agricultural development in the saline-alkali areas of the Yellow River Delta, as well as some suggestions for the future ecological protection and high-quality development of the region. This study is also of great significance for the efficient development of saline-alkali land in China.

    OUYANG Zhu; WANG Hongsheng; LAI Jianbin; WANG Chunjing; LIU Zhen; SUN Zhigang; HOU Ruixing

Build Innovation System of Third Generation of Agricultural Machinery in China

  • Agricultural mechanization and intelligent agricultural machinery equipment are important basis for improving agricultural production efficiency and rural productivity and changing the mode of agricultural development. In the past 70 years, China’s agricultural machinery industry has made remarkable achievements. It has become the largest agricultural machinery country in the world, despite the backwardness before 1949. Nevertheless, there is still a huge technical gap between China and established powers in the field of agricultural machinery. “Big but not strong” has become the main feature at this stage. To realize the breakthrough “from big to strong” in agricultural machinery industry, the fundamental path is to establish an agricultural machinery innovation system suitable for China’s agricultural production operation mode. This study takes tractor as a typical representative of agricultural machinery industry and reviews the development process of agricultural machinery industry system in China. Then we divide the agricultural machinery industry system of China into different generations according to the technological development and the reform of land system. The aim and content of the new generation (third generation) agricultural machinery innovation system are described emphatically. We also discuss the application of new technology innovation system in the Yellow River Delta and introduce how to build the application system of the third-generation agricultural machinery. Finally, some suggestions are given for the construction of the independent and controllable third generation agricultural machinery innovation system of China.

    SUN Ninghui; ZHANG Yucheng; SHI Jinglin

Study on Green Development Model and Approach of Blue Agriculture in the Yellow River Delta

  • The Yellow River Delta is located on the west coast of the Bohai Sea. It is one of the regions with active interaction between land and ocean and one of the three major estuary deltas in China. This region has the most complete, the most extensive, the youngest wetland ecosystem and abundant biological resources in China’s warm temperate zone. It plays an important role in the regulation of climate, mitigation of exogenous pollution, and restoration of amphibious ecological ecotone. In recent years, with the rapid development of the Yellow River Delta region, problems such as the continuous reduction of inflow water and sediment, the serious shrinkage of wetland areas, and the invasion of Spartina alterniflora Loisel, have become increasingly severe. On the basis of summarizing and analyzing the development status of this region, we proposed four development concepts: ecological protection priority, adaptation to local water conditions, deep integration of multiple elements, and reasonable spatial layout. We then suggested four development models: ecological farm and ranch, integrated development of fishery and tourism, integrated development of fishery and energy industry, and linkage of three kinds of industrial models, with a view to achieving green development of blue agriculture in the Yellow River Delta.

    YANG Hongsheng; XING Lili; ZHANG Libin

Public Health

Thoughts on the Coordinating and Synergistic Role of Science and Technology in Responding to Major Public Health Emergencies

  • General Secretary Xi Jinping attaches great importance to science and technology to support the prevention and control of the novel coronavirus pneumonia. On March 2, 2020, during inspecting the scientific research on prevention and control of the novel coronavirus pneumonia in Beijing, General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized that science and technology are the most powerful weapons for human beings to fight against diseases, and the scientific development and the technological innovation are indispensable for human beings to overcome catastrophic epidemics. Besides, he also proposed that it is an important and urgent task to conduct the scientific research on prevention and control of the novel coronavirus pneumonia. It is necessary to integrate multidisciplinary forces, make the leadership unified, and coordinate to promote the research, so as to accelerate the progress of research and development on the basis of adhering to scientificity and ensuring safety, overcome the key and difficult problems of the epidemic prevention and control as soon as possible, and provide the strong scientific and technological support for conquer this epidemic.

    XIA Junjie; YANG Ming

Summary and Recommendations of Development of Public Health and Disease Prevention and Control

  • The COVID-19 epidemic in 2020 is a public health emergency rapidly spreading and hard to prevent and control, causing catastrophic loss of life and almost paralyzing the society. In the absence of specific antiviral drugs and vaccines, China has effectively curbed the spread of COVID-19 by taking non-medical intervention actions decisively and precisely, with the multidepartmental collaborations and involvement of all communities and individuals. However, in the process of combating the epidemic, problems and shortcomings have also been clearly shown in the disease control system and the emergency response system. This review tried to address the weaknesses and issues presented in the COVID-19 epidemic regarding the current system of disease prevention and control, laws and regulations related to public health, and public health emergency management. Also, detailed recommendations were made, including the reform of the CDC system, the development of science and technology, as well as the boost of public health professionals training.

    SUN Dianjianyi; LI Liming

Accelerating Construction of Innovative Country to Promote Modernization of China’s Emergency Supplies Reserve System

  • The outbreak of COVID-19 exposed the shortcomings of China’s public health emergency management system and accelerated the reform of all related businesses. The reform of emergency supplies reserve is imminent. This work reviews the development process of China’s main supplies reserve system, studies the international experience of supplies reserve system construction, analyzes the main problems existing in China’s current emergency supplies reserve system, and defines the overall goal of reform: to establish and improve the laws and regulations in the field of national emergency supplies reserve; to form a modern comprehensive leadership and management capacity of supplies reserve based on national conditions to adapt to major emergency events; to supplement and improve the new mechanism of supplies reserve facing new risks; to cultivate a first-class personnel team of supplies reserve and improve the supporting role of science and technology; to promote the application of new technologies in supplies reserve, and to speed up the digital transformation of supplies reserve field. Finally, we put forward some policy suggestions for speeding up the reform of the management system of emergency supplies reserve.

    SUN Yi; WU Jing; LIU Changxin; ZHU Yongbin

Strategic Thinking on Strengthening the Construction of National Emergency Prevention and Control System of TCM for Major Infectious Diseases

  • COVID-19 epidemic is still raging globally, while China has not only controlled the spread of the epidemic in time but also gradually recovered domestic production and life. China’s epidemic prevention and control work achieved strategic results, and the full participation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become the highlight of the works. However, confronting emerging infectious diseases, the emergency reserves and emergency response capabilities of TCM are insufficient, especially in the rapid emergency response mechanism, emergency treatment system, professional personnel training, emergency research system and platform construction, and emergency strategic resource reserve. Strengthening the construction of the TCM emergency prevention and control system for major infectious diseases can not only improve the emergency prevention and control capabilities against major public health emergencies in China, but also is an inevitable demand to protect people’s personal safety and health. Here we referred to the practice of TCM fighting against COVID-19, analyzed the problems to be solved, and consequently suggested on how to strengthen the national emergency prevention and control system of major infectious diseases.

    TONG Xiaolin; ZHU Xiangdong; ZHAO Linhua; Li Qingwei; LEI Ye; SONG Bin; SHAO Jianzhu; WANG Qiang; LI Xiuyang; ZHENG Yujiao; FAN Aihan

Urgently Needed Construction of Public Psychological Service System in Emergency Management

  • COVID-19 outbreak not only affects individuals’ physical and mental health, but also influences the government trust, interpersonal trust, risk communication, economic confidence, consumer behavior, social mentality, and other social psychological behaviors. Accordingly, the construction of public psychological service system needs to be strengthened in the national emergency management system. Our corresponding suggestions are as follows. First, national emergency response law should be revised in a timely manner in order to incorporate the public psychological service system into the emergency management system. Second, professional emergency service team consisting of psychological service professionals should be established to guide social organizations to play their roles in an orderly manner. Third, information management system and network platforms should be constructed to realize the precise docking and good management of public psychological service demand and resources in emergency management. Fourth, psychological research on the emergency management should be enhanced to provide knowledge accumulation and scientific support for perfecting the emergency management system and improving emergency management efficiency and capacity.

    CHEN Xuefeng; FU Xiaolan

Poverty Alleviation

Theoretical System and Its Application of National Targeted Poverty Alleviation Assessment

  • China put forward the major strategy of targeted poverty alleviation in 2013, and implemented the “most stringent assessment and evaluation” system to ensure that the work of poverty alleviation is pragmatic, the process of poverty alleviation solid, and the result of poverty alleviation real. Targeted poverty alleviation assessment is an important means to improve the effectiveness of national targeted poverty alleviation, which is of great significance to fight against poverty and promote the modernization of national governance system and governance capacity. On the basis of the practice of the third-party evaluation of the effectiveness of national targeted poverty alleviation, this paper discusses the differentiation law of rural poverty and its scientific cognition, summarizes the theory and technology system of national targeted poverty alleviation evaluation, and deeply analyzes the application and contribution of evaluation theory and technology in the evaluation survey over the years. Results show that the “island effect” and “marginal diminishing effect” of rural poverty, and the supply-demand structure between the government’s “support” and the farmers’ “poverty” are the scientific significance of implementing the effectiveness assessment of targeted poverty alleviation. They require in-depth assessment to promote rectification and effectively improve the performance of targeted poverty alleviation. The theoretical cognition and practical needs of rural poverty are the important basis for establishing assessment objectives and developing assessment plans and play a direct guiding role in refining the assessment indicators of antipoverty effectiveness, exploring the connotation of indicators, and formulating evaluation work plans. Theoretical system of national third-party assessment on the effectiveness of targeted poverty alleviation is a comprehensive system including key technologies, support technologies, package support system, and big data platform. It has successfully supported the national effectiveness assessment of targeted poverty alleviation from 2016 to 2020 and has played the role of “baton,” “quality inspection instrument,” and “propeller,” providing references for the assessment and scientific decision-making for poverty alleviation.

    LIU Yansui; ZHOU Chenghu; GUO Yuanzhi; WANG Liming

Typical Study on Sustainable Development in Relative Poverty Areas and Policy Outlook of China

  • On the basis of the systematic review of the research progress on China’s relative poverty, this study discussed the distribution characteristics of the relative poverty areas (RPAs) and the basis of regional function types and proposed the policy recommendations. There are three main periods concerning sustainable development research on RPAs: (1) The concept of “relative poverty” was adopted for the first time to carry out scientific research on regional sustainable development. (2) It supported the RPAs to become an important type of area to promote sustainable development policies in underdeveloped areas in China. (3) It deployed a protracted battle in advance to support the development of RPAs before the comprehensive accomplishment of anti-poverty. The change characteristics of the RPAs and the regional function types indicated that the scale of the relative poverty population in China has remained at around 200 million for a long time, and the pattern of concentrated distribution has not changed. Meanwhile, taking ecological service function as the main regional function types, areas with and those lacking development conditions coexist in the RPAs constrained by the natural carrying capacity. Policy recommendations are proposed to promote the simultaneous realization of modernization in the RPAs on a higher stage as follows. From a global perspective, the optimization regulation and spatial governance of the Man–Land system should be carried out to stabilize the national defense, ecological, food, energy, and social security. For regions with development potential, the comparative advantages of the resources and ecology should be transformed into economic advantages through mechanism innovation, thereby solving the intergenerational transfer under “path dependence” and the interregional exfoliation under the “Matthew effect.” For regions lacking development conditions, natural carrying capacity should be steadily unloaded; mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes, and grasslands should be conserved systematically; the equalization level of basic public services should be improved comprehensively.

    FAN Jie; ZHOU Kan; WU Jianxiong

Connotation of high-quality development in relative poverty areas of China and implementation strategy

  • Poverty is a major challenge faced by human development. Especially, it is a global problem that has plagued developing countries, including China, for a long time. As rural absolute poverty-stricken population and poverty-stricken counties will achieve poverty alleviation in 2020, China’s anti-poverty focus in the new era will begin to shift from targeted poverty alleviation in absolute poverty areas to high-quality development through comprehensive measures in relative poverty areas. On the basis of an initially constructed conceptual model of high-quality development in relative poverty areas, we analyzed the internal and external constraints of individual and regional livelihoods sustainability, and further proposed comprehensive policies to avoid the returning of poverty after 2020 and achieve high-quality development. It is necessary to guide the rational flow of population and development factors, reshape the appearance of urban and rural interaction and equivalent development, improve the value of resources and ecological advantages, and focus on key poverty areas such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. With the “14th Five-Year Plan” period as the transition period, efforts should be made to formulate flexible and accurate identification standards for population and areas in relative poverty. Besides, attention should be attached to the integration of various poverty alleviation policy tools and resources for the forming of a centralized, distributed, and mobile high-quality infrastructure and public service guarantee system.

    ZHOU Kan; SHENG Kerong; FAN Jie; LIU Hanchu; WU Jianxiong

Mechanisms and Realization Pathways for Integration of Scientific Poverty Alleviation and Ecosystem Services Enhancement

  • On the basis of eliminating absolute poverty and resolving overall regional poverty, it is urgent to consolidate the achievement of poverty alleviation and promote the effective connection of comprehensive poverty alleviation and the strategy of rural vitalization after targeted poverty alleviation. Taking the ecological governance and scientific poverty alleviation in southwest karst region as an example, we firstly systematically reviewed the rocky desertification treatment and its effectiveness and benefits. Then we revealed the scientific poverty alleviation systems proposed by Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) with the combination and integration of ecological governance and poverty relief and regional development. These effective poverty alleviation methods include environmental migration, poor population relocation, ecological derivative industry cultivation, and ecosystem services enhancement. We also analyzed and discussed the principal problems of current practices of ecological governance and poverty alleviation. To realize the integration of scientific poverty alleviation and ecosystem services enhancement, we suggest exploring available realization pathways. That is, we should pay more attention to coordinating the integrated regional governance and systematic restoration at regional scale, proposing forest landscape restoration, developing sustainable ecological derivative industry, balancing ecological restoration and local community development, and establishing policies for the regionalization of important ecological function areas. The proposed realization pathways could promote the hematopoietic function of regional development and will also enhance the effectiveness and benefits of poverty alleviation and the implementation of the strategy of rural vitalization.

    WANG Kelin; YUE Yuemin; CHEN Hongsong; ZENG Fuping

Suggestions on Consolidating Achievements of Poverty Alleviation and Promoting Rural Revitalization

  • After the elimination of absolute poverty by 2020 in China, consolidating the achievements of targeted poverty alleviation, reducing relative poverty, and promoting rural revitalization will become the key tasks of development-oriented poverty alleviation in the future. This paper reviews the basic logic of the major policies of poverty alleviation and rural revitalization, analyzes the importance and necessity of consolidating the achievements of poverty alleviation in the new stage, and puts forward the main ideas and key contents of consolidating the achievements of poverty alleviation. It is suggested that we should continue to adhere to the idea of “precision” and establish the bottom line thinking of eliminating absolute poverty. We will consolidate the achievements we have made in poverty alleviation by promoting the institutionalization of poverty alleviation, ensuring the sustainable development of poverty alleviation industries, expanding channels for increasing the incomes of people lifted out of poverty, improving supporting facilities for the relocation of poor people from inhospitable areas, and raising the level of security for those in need. Expanding the achievements of poverty alleviation in line with the rural industry revitalization, living environment renovation, people’s livelihood security improvement and rural civilization construction are connected to create a new pattern of coordinated progress in poverty alleviation and rural revitalization.

    WANG Jieyong; DAI Chun; LIU Zhengjia; LI Yurui

Other Fields

Data Science and Computing Intelligence: Concept, Paradigm, and Opportunities

  • The development of data science is valuable to clarify the theoretical boundary of data science, and provides new possibilities and opportunities for the sustainable development of computing intelligence. Meanwhile, the development of computing intelligence and the emergence of new intelligence paradigms can offer new chances for applications of big data in various industries and fields. This paper discusses the connotation of data science, the development of computing intelligence, the new intelligence paradigm, and lists the key applications leading the development of data science and computing intelligence. Furthermore, on the basis of the discussion during the 667th Xiangshan Science Conference, seven key problems of data science and computing technology are proposed, anticipating to attract attention of both researchers and users in related fields, grasping the opportunity of the era, and promoting sustainable development of data science and computing intelligence.

    CHENG Xueqi; MEI Hong; ZHAO Wei; WAH Wan Sang B; SHEN Huawei; LI Guojie

Develop Visualization Technology of Cyberspace to Support Construction of Comprehensive Cyber Security System

  • Cyber security is the basis of national security in the information age, and the visualization of cyberspace is of vital importance for cyber security. Based on the theory of human–land–network nexus, this study proposed the connotation and technical path of cyberspace visualization and described the visualization of cyberspace elements, relationship in cyberspace, and cyber security events. Based on the cyberspace geography, the exploration and application of cyberspace visualization technology is an important content of constructing the mapping relationship between cyberspace and real world as well as drawing a cyberspace map, which will provide significant support for cyberspace mapping in the ensurement of cyber security.

    GUO Qiquan; GAO Chundong; HAO Mengmeng; JIANG Dong

International Cooperation Management Practice of Space Science Missions in China and Related Thinkings——Case Study on Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

  • International cooperation is an objective need for space science development, and also a necessary path for China to approach the stage center of the world space science. The scientific mission series under China’s Strategic Priority Program on Space Science (SPP) involve comprehensive, extensive, all-round, and multi-level international cooperation in the whole life cycle of mission innovation chain. International cooperation partners include ESA and major European space countries, as well as the US, Russia, Canada, Australia, Japan, Singapore, etc. To ensure the originality and significance of the scientific objectives of the SPP missions, a swath of measures have been applied, including establishing bilateral meeting mechanism, co-establishing international research institutions, promoting international exchanges and cooperation, deepening the international study of the mission, and optimizing the advanced payload detection configuration. To facilitate the output of high impact scientific achievements, the engineering management and science management of the cooperative missions are strengthened by implementing the mechanism of Co-Principal Investigators both at the mission level and the payload level. This paper reviews the international cooperation activities and management practice of the Chinese space science missions, and offers some suggestions for the future work, in a bid to provide references for the follow-up management of international cooperation missions.

    WANG Chi; LI Chao; SUN Lilin

Deepening the Implementation of “Shiptime Sharing Project” to Promote Original Innovation of Marine Science and Technology

  • The “Shiptime Sharing Project” is a new exploration of the funding model of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). After eleven years of implementation, it has achieved significant effect which guaranteed the needs of marine surveys for NSFC-funded projects. It has established a marine field observation platform for both interdisciplinary research and the training of young research scientists. It has promoted the accumulation and sharing of marine survey data as well as the overall development of marine science. Facing the new trend of global technology and economic development, the national strategic demand puts forward higher requirements for the “Shiptime Sharing Project.” It is urgent to further enhance the strategic positioning of the plan, optimize and innovate the management mechanism, and increase the scale of funding.

    LENG Shuying; ZHANG Liang

Recommended Journal

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (BCAS) is a think tank journal directed and sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), which focuses on strategic and decision-making research. BCAS is published both at home and abroad. It is positioned as the “Core Media of National Science Think Tank of China” and the key media platform for the construction of national high-end think tank under CAS.

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