内蒙古自治区土地荒漠化动态变化研究
Study on Dynamic Change of Land Desertification in Inner Mongolia

土地荒漠化是当今世界最为棘手的生态-经济-社会问题,威胁着人类的生存和发展。中国是世界上荒漠化问题最严重的国家之一,荒漠化会引起土地退化、土壤质量下降、植被覆盖率降低、沙尘等灾害性天气问题,严重制约了社会经济的发展。内蒙古自治区,是我国荒漠化第二大省区,近年来,荒漠化防治工作取得了一定成效,是目前荒漠化治理成效最为显著的地区,但部分地区荒漠化形式依然十分严峻。土地荒漠化的驱动力研究是荒漠化研究的基础,气候变化以及人类活动的影响是荒漠化逆转与发展的主要驱动力。内蒙古自治区幅员辽阔,荒漠分布较广,根据地理区划及荒漠形成特点划分不同沙区,从沙区尺度出发,探寻不同沙区荒漠化的主要驱动因子,对于荒漠化的治理及荒漠化防治具有重要意义。多元线性回归模型,能够定量分析各荒漠化驱动因素在不同沙区的显著性。本文以内蒙古自治区为研究对象,以1985-2015年作为研究时点,综合运用数学模型、ArcGIS、SPSS等技术,系统剖析研究时点下不同沙区土地荒漠化变动数量及变动方向,在此基础上运用多元回归模型分析各地区荒漠变化主要驱动因素,并提出针对性的防沙治沙意见及建议。本文主要研究内容和结论如下:(1)内蒙古境内各沙区荒漠化时空变化具有显著的空间异质性。在时间尺度上,内蒙古荒漠化土地总面积从1985年的55.52万km~2增加至2015年的62.46万km~2,但荒漠化逆转面积大于发展面积,其中,荒漠化内部不同等级间荒漠逆转面积高达11.24万km~2。荒漠化土地的逆转与发展均以相邻等级间的变化为主,以草地的荒漠化、各级荒漠逆转为草地的变动面积最大。在空间尺度上,荒漠化总体的重要度下降,逆转区域集中于鄂尔多斯、乌兰察布、阿拉善等沙区,发展区域集中于浑善达克沙区、呼伦贝尔沙区西部。(2)土地荒漠化逆转与发展主要受降水、日照、温度、风、城镇化水平、耕地发展水平、饲养地均牲畜数量、人工造林面积等因素驱动。研究结果表明,各沙区荒漠化驱动因素有所不同。呼伦贝尔沙区荒漠化发展主要受降雨量、人工造林面积、农作物耕作面积驱动,浑善达克沙区荒漠化发展的主要驱动力为风。科尔沁沙区荒漠化变动的主要驱动力为降雨及地均牲畜数量。察哈尔沙区荒漠化变化的主要驱动力为降雨及日照水平。乌兰察布、内蒙后山、河套平原三个相毗邻的沙区荒漠化的主要驱动力均为降雨及人工造林。土默特沙区荒漠化的主要驱动力是降雨,阿拉善沙区荒漠化的驱动力除降雨外,还包括日照及温度。鄂尔多斯全区荒漠化逆转主要受人工造林、城镇化、牲畜畜养的驱动。(3)在土地荒漠化治理方面,研究区当前已经实行了封山育林、育草、重点生态工程建设、防沙治沙等系列措施。但浑善达克、呼伦贝尔西部等沙区荒漠化现象依然十分严峻,未来荒漠化治理应充分借鉴鄂尔多斯等地的治沙经验,在秉持飞播造林、穿沙公路、以水治沙、产业治沙等防沙治沙措施的基础上,注重生态效益与经济效益并重,寻求林沙产业发展,研发高端沙利用技术、引进专业技术人员,实现管沙用沙,不断提升沙产业产品附加值,促进内蒙古自治区环境的可持续发展。

Land desertification is the most difficult ecological-economic-social problem in the world,threatening human survival and development.China is one of the countries with the most serious desertification problems in the world.Desertification can cause land degradation,declining soil quality,lower vegetation coverage,and bring disasters such as sand and dust,which seriously restricts the development of social economy.As the second largest province of desertification in China,Inner Mongolia,in recent years,desertification control has achieved some success.It is an area where desertification control has achieved remarkable results in China.However,the trend of desertification in some regions is still very severe.The study of the driving force of desertification is the basis of desertification research.The impact of climate change and human activities is the main driving force for the reversal or development of desertification.Inner Mongolia has a vast territory and a wide distribution of deserts,according to geographical divisions and the characteristics of desert formation,different sandy regions are divided.Starting from the sandy region scale,exploring the main driving factors for desertification in different sandy areas is of great significance for desertification control.Multiple linear regression models can be used to quantitatively analyze the significance of desertification driving factors in different sandy regions.This paper takes the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as the research object,taking 1985-2015 years as the research time point,comprehensively uses mathematical models,GIS,SPSS and other technologies to systematically analyze the changes in the amount and direction of land desertification changes in different sandy regions.On the basis of above,the multiple-regression model was used to analyze the main drivers of desertification change in various sandy regions,then,specific suggestions and proposals for desertification control were proposed.The main research contents and conclusions of this paper are as follows:(1)The spatio-temporal variability of desertification in sandy regions in Inner Mongolia has significant spatial heterogeneity.On the time scale,the total area of desertification land in Inner Mongolia increased from 555,200 km~2 in 1985 to 624,600 km~2 in 2015,but the desertification reversal area was larger than the development area,among which,the reversal area of desert within different grades was up to 112,400 km~2.The reversal and development of desertification land are mainly based on the changes between adjacent grades,and the greatest changes are in desertification of grassland and reversal of desertification of all grades to grassland.On the spatial scale,the overall importance degree of desertification declines,and the reversal areas are concentrated in the sandy regions of erdos,wlcb,and alsh.The development areas are concentrated in the hsdk and the west of the hlbr sandy regions.(2)The reversal and development of land desertification are mainly driven by factors such as precipitation,sunshine,temperature,wind,urbanization level,cultivated land development level,number of livestock raised,and afforestation area.The results of the study indicate that the driving factors for desertification vary in different sandy regions.The development of desertification in hlbr is mainly driven by rainfall,artificial afforestation area,and crop cultivation area.The main driving force for the development of desertification in the hsdk is wind,the main driving force for desertification change in kerq is rainfall and large livestock numbers,the main drivers of desertification change in charis rainfall and sunshine levels,the main driving forces of desertification in the three adjacent sandy regions of wlcb,nmhs and htpy are rainfall and artificial afforestation.The main driving force of desertification in the wmt is rainfall,and the driving force of desertification in the alsh includes sunshine and temperature in addition to rainfall.The reversal of desertification in erdos is mainly driven by artificial afforestation,urbanization,and animal husbandry.(3)In terms of land desertification control,the study area has already implemented series of measures such as closing mountains,afforestation,and grass,building key ecological projects,and preventing desertification.However,in hsdk,western hlbr,desertification is still severe.In the future,desertification control should make full use of the experience of sand control in erdos,in order to uphold airborne afforestation,sand transport roads,water controland industrial sand control.Based on the sand control measures,we pay equal attention to both ecological and economic benefits,seek forest sand research and development of high-end industrial development,introduce professional and technical personnel,realize sand control and sand use,continuously increase the added value of sand industrial products,and promote the sustainable development of the environment in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

荒漠化; 时空演变; 驱动力; 内蒙古; 定量评价;

Desertification; Spatio-temporal evolvement; Driving force; Inner Mongolia; Quantitative evaluation;

雷国平;

X171.4

313615263K