肯尼亚塔拉卡尼迪县(Tharaka-Nithi)植物区系和民族植物学研究
Floristic and Ethnobotanical Study of Tharaka-Nithi County,Kenya

塔拉卡尼迪县(Tharaka-Nithi)位于肯尼亚中东部,境内海拔高差巨大,从600米至近5200米,容纳了从山地森林到低地落叶旱林和稀树草原等多样的生态系统和生物群落,代表了肯尼亚整个国家的主要地形与植被特征。然而由于气候变化和人为干扰,该地区植物区系面临着巨大的挑战,但本地区目前尚无完整的植物区系本底资料,物种受威胁程度也尚未系统评估。此外,很多植物也在当地居民的日常生活中扮演重要的角色,然而丰富的民族植物学知识尚未被系统地调查与整理。本研究基于文献、标本、在线数据库与广泛的野外实地调查,提供了塔拉卡尼迪县第一个系统的维管植物名录。其中野外实地调查是在2018年5月至2019年2月的旱季和雨季开展的,调查范围覆盖了塔拉卡尼迪县所有的森林。根据最新的名录,统计了科、属、生活型的多样性,并使用R统计软件Vegan和picante软件包分析海拔亲和力。综合所有资料,塔拉卡尼迪县目前已知有820种维管植物,隶属于134科、487属,其中包含26种肯尼亚特有种和10种本县特有种。此外,Sauromatum venosum(Dryand.ex Aiton)Kunth,Zehneria longiflora G.W.Hu&Q.F.Wang,和 Alectra pasitica A.Rich.为本研究在野外调查中发现的本地区新记录种。生活型统计表明,本地区草本植物种类最丰富,占总种类的33%,其次为乔木,占29%,再次为灌木,占25%。在分布式样上,物种亲和性分析表明物种丰富度最高的海拔分布范围是1000-2000 m。根据目前IUCN对全球物种濒危程度的评估现状,本地区大多数物种尚未被世界自然保护联盟评估(约占80%),已评估的物种中有1.6%的种类生存现状令人担忧,其中大多数是该地区的特有种,并有4个濒危种(EU)、9个易危种(VU)。根据濒危物种的分布特点,本研究提出,塔拉卡尼迪县濒危物种分布最集中的两个地点位于肯尼亚山的Chogoria山区森林和旱地上的Kijege丘陵,这两个点也是最需要优先保护的地点。本研究同时对塔拉卡尼迪县首次开展了系统的民族植物学调查与研究。通过与当地受访者半结构化的访谈以及对当地森林和山丘开展针对性的野外采集,本研究得到当地传统利用的214种植物及共616个用途的清单,其中植物生活型以乔木为主,类群上以豆科种类最为丰富,并分布最广。本研究提供了肯尼亚塔拉卡尼迪县第一份系统的维管植物名录与民族植物学调查清单,为该地区将来更深入的植物区系与资源调查以及物种保育等打下基础,也为《肯尼亚植物志》的编研提供重要的本底资料。

Tharaka-Nithi County is located in the central and eastern part of Kenya.The county has great attitudinal ranges of 600 m to 5200 m a.s.l.and hosts a wide range of ecosystems and biomes spanning from montane forest to vast deciduous dryland forests characterized by scrub and wooded bushlands and grasslands.Despite the natural biodiversity in this region being diverse,it is threatened by climate change and anthropogenic activities.Additionally,the background floristic knowledge for Tharaka-Nithi County is lacking:threatened status for most species has been not assessed,and the vast ethnobotanical knowledge has also not been systematically investigated and documented.Based on the literature,specimens,online databases,and extensive field investigations,this study provides the first vascular plant checklist of Tharaka-Nithi County.The field investigation was conducted in both dry and rainy season from May 2018 to February 2019,covering all the forests of Tharaka-Nithi.This study analyzed the diversity of families,genera and life forms according to the latest checklist.It also used Vegan and Picante packages in the statistical software R to analyze altitude affinities.According to all data available,there are currently 820 known vascular plant species in a total of 487 genera and 134 families in Tharaka-Nithi County,including 26 species endemic to Kenya and 10 species endemic to the county.In addition,Sauromatum venosum(Dryand.ex Aiton)Kunth,Zehneria longiflora G.W.Hu&Q.F.Wang,and Alectra parasitica A.Rich.are new records for the county recorded during the field investigation.Statistics of life forms showed that the herbaceous plants are the most abundant(33%),followed by trees(29%)and shrubs(25%).For the distribution patterns of plant diversity,species affinity analysis showed the highest species richness at 1000-2000 m a.s.l.According to the current progress of IUCN assessment,most species in this region have not been assessed(80%),and 1.6%of the assessed species are worrisome,most are endemic to the region,including four(4)endangered(EU)and nine(9)vulnerable(VU)species.Based on the distribution characteristics of endangered species,this study proposed two localities with the highest concentration of endemic species in Tharaka Nithi County,whose priority for protection is also the highest.The two localities are the Chogoria montane forest in Mount Kenya and the Kijege hills on the drylands.A systematic ethnobotany investigation was also carried out in Tharaka-Nithi County.Through semi-structured interviews with key informants and targeted field collection in local forests and hills,this study obtained a total of 214 species with 616 indications of utilization,of which trees are the main type of plant life,and species from Leguminosae are the most abundant and widely distributed.This study provides the first systematic vascular plant checklist and comprehensive ethnobotanical study for Tharaka-Nithi County and lays a foundation for further floristic investigation,use,and conservation of plant resources in the future,as well as contributing to the ongoing Flora of Kenya project.

生物多样性; 物种; 植被; 植物区系; 民族植物学; Tharaka-Nithi;

Biodiversity; Species; Vegetation; Flora; Ethnobotany; Tharaka-Nithi;

胡光万;

Q948.5

991619656K